User Guide


Introduction

FALL3D is an Eulerian model for atmospheric passive transport and deposition based on the so-called advection–diffusion–sedimentation (ADS) equation. The code version 8.x has been redesigned and rewritten from scratch in order to overcome legacy issues and allow for successive optimisations in the preparation towards extreme-scale computing. The new versions include significant improvements from the point of view of model physics, numerical algorithmic methods, and computational efficiency. In addition, the capabilities of the model have been extended by incorporating new features such as the possibility of running ensemble forecasts and dealing with multiple atmospheric species (i.e. volcanic ash and gases, mineral dust, and radionuclides). Ensemble run capabilities are supported since version 8.1, making it possible to quantify model uncertainties and improve forecast quality.

The FALL3D code is one of the flagship codes included in the European Centre of Excellence for Exascale in Solid Earth (ChEESE).

  • FALL3D is an open-source code available through this GitLab repository
  • FALL3D is also available in Zenodo: DOI

References

  • Folch, A., Mingari, L., Gutierrez, N., Hanzich, M., Macedonio, G., and Costa, A.: FALL3D-8.0: a computational model for atmospheric transport and deposition of particles, aerosols and radionuclides – Part 1: Model physics and numerics, Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1431–1458, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-1431-2020, 2020.
  • Prata, A. T., Mingari, L., Folch, A., Macedonio, G., and Costa, A.: FALL3D-8.0: a computational model for atmospheric transport and deposition of particles, aerosols and radionuclides – Part 2: Model validation, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 409–436, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-409-2021, 2021.

Contributing

The FALL3D documentation is free and open source. You can find the source code on GitLab and issues and feature requests can be posted on the GitLab issue tracker.

We encourage the community to fix bugs and add features: if you'd like to contribute, please read the CONTRIBUTING.md guide and consider opening a merge request.

License

FALL3D and this User Guide are released under the GNU General Public License (GPL).

FALL3D in a nutshell

FALL3D is an open-source off-line Eulerian model for atmospheric passive transport and deposition. The model, originally developed for inert volcanic particles (tephra), has a track record of 50+ on different model applications and code validation, as well as an ever-growing community of users worldwide, including academia, private, research, and several institutions tasked with operational forecast of volcanic ash clouds.

The model solves the so-called Advection-Diffusion-Sedimentation (ADS) equation: \[ \frac{\partial c}{\partial t} + \nabla \vec{F} + \nabla \vec{G} + \nabla \vec{H} = S - I \] where \(\vec{F}= c~\vec{u}\) is the advective flux, \(\vec{G}= c~\vec{u_s}\) is the sedimentation flux, \(\vec{H}=-\mathbb{K} \nabla c\) is the diffusive flux, and \(S\) and \(I\) are the source and sink terms respectively. In the expressions above, \(t\) denotes time, \(c\) is concentration, \(\vec{u}\) is the fluid velocity vector (wind velocity), \(\vec{u_s}\) is the terminal settling velocity of the substance, and \(\mathbb{K}\) is the diffusion tensor.

In FALL3D v8.x, the ADS equation has been extended to handle passive transport of other substances different from tephra. In a general sense, substances in FALL3D are grouped in 3 broad categories:

  • Category particles: includes any inert substance characterized by a sedimentation velocity.
  • Category aerosol: refers to substances potentially non-inert (i.e. with chemical or phase changes mechanisms) and having a negligible sedimentation velocity.
  • Category radionuclides: refers to isotope particles subjected to radioactive decay.

Each category admits, in turn, different sub-categories or species, defined internally as structures of data that inherit the parent category properties. For example, particles can be subdivided into tephra or mineral dust; aerosol species can include H2O, SO2, etc.; and radionuclides can include several isotope species. Finally, each sub-category of species is tagged with an attribute name that is used for descriptive purposes only.

Category of species

How to get FALL3D

FALL3D is maintained in a public git repository, which contains the stable releases and the current working code. Stable version releases of the FALL3D source code are available as a tarball or zip file and can be downloaded from the Releases section.

However, we strongly recommend to clone the git repository especially if you want to update the source code or select different versions in case of problems. In order to obtain the software from the gitlab repository, you must first download and install the git software.

Then clone the repository using the following command line:

> git clone git@gitlab.com:fall3d-suite/fall3d.git

After cloning, a directory fall3d should have been created.

Code changes are made fairly frequently in the gitlab repository. It is recommended to update the code periodically so that you have the latest version of FALL3D available on your computer. In order to update your local version of the source code, enter the FALL3D directory and pull all changes from a remote repository:

> cd fall3d
> git pull

Notes:

  • Every time the source code is updated with git pull, the compilation process detailed below must be repeated.

Verify that installation program prerequisites are present on your system before proceeding. See section Installation requirements for further details.

Basic installation

There are two different options to configure and install FALL3D. The basic installation uses the configure script and this option is intended for users that need a single configuration of the code. In constrast, the second option can be useful when multiple installations are required. The basic installation is described in this section. See section Multiple installations for a description of the second installation procedure.

For the basic installation, simply type the following commands from the installation folder:

> ./configure
> make
> make install

in order to configure, compile and place the executable file in the bin folder. The configure script admits the following options:

OptionComments
--with-r4compiles using single precision
--enable-parallelenables parallel option
--disable-paralleldisables parallel option
--prefix=installation folder
FCFLAGS=FORTRAN compiler flags
NETCDF=path of the netCDF library base folder
NETCDF_INC=path of the netCDF include folder
NETCDF_LIB=path of the netCDF lib folder

If no arguments are provided, configure is run by default as:

> .\configure --enable-parallel --prefix=. FCFLAGS='-g -O2'

and the configure script automatically searches for the correct netCDF paths.

Multiple installations

Alternatively, FALL3D can be installed using the build script in order to allow multiple installations with different configurations (e.g. serial and parallel, single and double precision, different compilation flag options). In addition, with this approach it is possible to have installations for different High Performance Computing (HPC) architectures sharing a common file system.

For each installation based on the build script, use the command:

> build [-h] [par|ser] [r4|r8] [build-dir]

where the arguments in brackets are optional and take the following default values:

ArgumentDefaultComments
-hnoneprints the buildoptions
par or serparbuilds with parallel/serial code options
r4 or r8r8builds with single/double code options
build-dirbinarybuild directory name

For example,

> ./build r4  machine1-r4-par
> ./build ser machine2-r8-ser

will build (i.e. configure, compile and install) two FALL3D instances: in the machine1-r4-par folder a parallel with single precision installation and another serial with double precision installation in the machine2-r8-ser folder. Different installations are completely independent and can be reconfigured and recompiled at any time within the respective folder following the Basic installation procedure.

Uninstalling

To uninstall FALL3D use the command

> make uninstall

in the installation folder to get rid of all the installed files.

Running FALL3D

Model execution requires a unique namelist input file *.inp to define the computation domain, time range, physics options and other model parameters. Start with the default input file Example.inp in the Example directory and edit it for your case.

FALL3D can be executed in serial mode by typing:

> ./Fall3d.x TASK namelist.inp

in order to perform the task TASK. Here, Fall3d.x refers to the executable file in the bin folder generated during the installation and namelist.inp is your namelist input file (see section Namelist file for a detailed description of the structure of this file). The available tasks are:

  • SetTgsd
  • SetDbs
  • SetSrc
  • FALL3D
  • All
  • PosEns
  • PosVal

For more details about the different model tasks, see the section Model tasks.

If FALL3D was compiled with the MPI option, run the model in parallel mode by typing:

> mpirun -n np Fall3d.x Task name.inp [NPX] [NPY] [NPZ] [-nens SIZE]

where:

  • np: number of processors
  • NPX, NPY, NPZ: number of processors along the dimensions x, y, and z in the domain decomposition (default=1)
  • SIZE: ensemble size (default=1)

Notes:

  • The execution command for MPI runs may be different, depending on the MPI installations (e.g., mpirun or mpiexec)
  • The total number of processors is NPX \(\times\) NPY \(\times\) NPY \(\times\) SIZE and should be equivalent to the argument np

A log file name.Task.log will be generated to track the task execution and to report eventual warnings and errors. If the job is successful, the last line printed in the log file should be

  Task FALL3D        : ends NORMALLY

Ensemble runs

From version release 8.1, ensemble simulations can be performed with FALL3D as a single model task. Ensemble-based approaches can give a deterministic product based on some combination of the single ensemble members (e.g. the ensemble mean) and, as opposed to single deterministic runs, attach to it an objective quantification of the forecast uncertainty. On the other hand, ensemble runs can also furnish probabilistic products based on the fraction of ensemble members that verify a certain (threshold) condition, e.g. the probability of cloud being detected by satellite-based instrumentation, the probability that the cloud mass concentration compromises the safety of air navigation, the probability of particle fallout or of aerosol concentration at surface to exceed regulatory values for impacts on infrastructures or on air quality, etc.

In order to perform a ensemble runs, FALL3D must be executed with the optional argument -nens, defining the ensemble size, set to a value greater than one. For example, the following command will generate a 24-member ensemble and perform the FALL3D task for each ensemble member:

> mpirun -np 24 Fall3d.x FALL3D name.inp -nens 24

A new folder structure will be created and the results for each ensemble member will be organized in different sub-folders.

Notes:

  • Ensemble simulations are only supported in parallel mode

Example test case

The FALL3D distribution includes multiple test cases (benchmark suite) that can be downloaded from the central repository. These cases are used to check the model configuration and installation rather than to perform an accurate simulations for event reconstruction.

Let's run the example case from the Example folder. First, enter the folder and use the wget command to download the input meteorological file required by FALL3D:

> cd Example
> wget https://gitlab.com/fall3d-distribution/testsuite/-/raw/master/example-8.0/InputFiles/example-8.0.wrf.nc

You can execute FALL3D in serial mode using the input file Example.inp with the following command:

> ../bin/Fall3d.x Example.inp All

Notes:

  • Depending on your installation the executable file name Fall3d.x can be different
  • More input files for testing can be downloaded from the Benchmark suite repository

Checking the results

If the run was successful, you should obtain a log file Example.Fall3d.log with the end message:

  Number of warnings : 0
  Number of errors   : 0
  Task FALL3D        : ends NORMALLY

The results of the simulation are stored in the output netCDF file Example.res.nc. For a quick view of the output file, you can use the ncview tool (available here) to graphically display netCDF files:

> ncview Example.res.nc

Installation requirements

In order to compile and install FALL3D you need:

  • Unix-like operating system (MacOS or Linux)
  • A modern Fortran compiler (e.g., gfortran, ifort, xlf90)
  • Git version management (optional)

The parallel version also requires:

  • An MPI library with Fortran support. For example: OpenMPI, Intel MPI or MVAPICH2

In addition, the following optional dependencies are recommended:

  • Doxygen, required to generate useful code documentation for developers
  • Python (>=3.8), required to run pre-processing and download tools

External libraries

FALL3D requires netCDF libraries. Specifically:

  • The netCDF-Fortran library with netCDF-4 support
  • For parallel I/O support on classic netCDF files, PnetCDF 1.6.0 or later is required

Getting pre-built netCDF libraries

The easiest way to get netCDF is through a package management program (e.g. apt, rpm, yum, homebrew). NetCDF is available from many different repositories, including the Ubuntu main repositories.

When getting netCDF from a software repository, you should get a development version. A development version will typically have a name such as "netcdf-devel" or "libnetcdf-dev". For example, you can install the netCDF Fortran library in Ubuntu with the command:

sudo apt install libnetcdff-dev

Building netCDF

The netCDF Fortran libraries depend on the netCDF C library which requires third-party libraries for full functionality, including:

  • HDF5 1.8.9 or later (for netCDF-4 support)
  • zlib 1.2.5 or later (for netCDF-4 compression)

And, optionally,

  • PnetCDF 1.6.0 or later (for parallel I/O support on classic netCDF files)

For information regarding the netCDF-C libraries, see Building netCDF-C and for netCDF-Fortran libraries, see Building the NetCDF-4.2 and later Fortran libraries.

Model tasks

In FALL3D, the former pre-process auxiliary programs (SetTgsd, SetDbs and SetSrc) have been parallelized and embedded within the main code, so that a single executable file exists for all the pre-process steps and execution workflow. These formerly independent programs can still be run individually invoked as model tasks (specified by a program call argument) or, alternatively, concatenated as a single model execution. In the first case, pre-process tasks generate output files that are later on furnished as inputs to the model (or to subsequent pre-process tasks). In contrast, the second option does not require of intermediate file writing/reading and, therefore, saves disk space and overall computing time.

The next figure shows a diagram of the FALL3D workflow, the data transfer between different tasks and the involved I/O files:

FAILED workflow

List of model tasks

This is the list of available tasks:

  • Task SetTgsd generates particle Total Grain Size Distributions (TGSD) for species of category particles or radionuclides
  • Task SetDbs interpolates (for a defined time slab) meteorological variables from the meteorological model grid to the FAL3D computational domain
  • Task SetSrc generates emission source terms for the different species. It can also perform a-priori particle aggregation and a TGSD cut-off
  • Task FALL3D runs the FALL3D solver
  • Task ALL runs all previous tasks concatenated
  • Task PosEns merges and post-processes outputs from single ensemble members. Only for ensemble runs
  • Task PosVal validates single or ensemble-based results

All the tasks require a common configuration file as an input, i.e. the namelist file name.inp. In addition, there are different input and output files associated with each task, as is summarized in the next table:

TaskNamelist file requiredMandatory
input files
Optional input filesOutput files
SetTgsdYesCustom distributionname.specie.tgsd
SetDbsYesMeteorological file in netCDF formatDictionary filename.dbs.nc, name.dbs.pro
SetSrcYesname.specie.tgsd, name.dbs.proname.specie.grn, name.src
FALL3DYesname.src, name.specie.grn, name.dbs.ncname.ptsname.res.nc, name.rst.nc
AllYesMeteorological file in netCDF formatname.ptsname.res.nc, name.rst.nc
PosEnsYesList of name.res.nc filesname.ens.nc
PosValYesname.res.nc or name.ens.ncsee section Task PosVal

The task SetEns is not explicitly executed by the user, but is automatically invoked when ensemble runs are performed in order to set up the ensemble. The ensemble run option is enabled whenever FALL3D is executed with the argument -nens, which allows one to define the size of the ensemble.

Notes:

  • The model tasks SetEns, PosEns and PosVal have been added from version 8.1.

The namelist file

The namelist file name.inp is an input configuration file in ASCII format required by all tasks. It consists of a set of blocks defining physical parameterisations, time ranges, model domain, emission source, numerical schemes, etc. Each task reads only the necessary blocks generating self-consistent input files. Parameters within a block are listed one per record, in arbitrary order, and optionally can be followed by one (or more) blank space and a comment. Comments start with the exclamation mark symbol "!". Real numbers can be expressed using the FORTRAN notation (e.g. 12E7).

See section Namelist file for a full description of the file structure.

The LOG file

In addition, each task TASK produces a log file name.TASK.log reporting relevant information and potential errors or warnings.

Task SetTGSD

The task SetTGSD generates particle Total Grain Size Distributions (TGSD) for species of category particles or radionuclides.

Input file

This task requires a single input file, i.e. the namelist file name.inp.

Output files

The total grain size distribution file

The Total Grain Size Distribution (TGSD) file name.tgsd.species is generated for each particle and radionuclide species. The TGSD file is an ASCII file containing the definition of the particle bins (each characterized by size, density and sphericity). It is generated by the task SetTgsd or directly furnished by the user. The file format is described in the following table:

Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4
nc
diam(1)rho(1)sphe(1)fc(1)
............
diam(nc)rho(nc)sphe(nc)f(nc)

where the symbols are:

symboldefinition
ncNumber of bins
diambin diameter in \(mm\)
rhobin density in \(kg~m^{-3}\)
sphebin sphericity
fcbin mass fraction satisfying \(\sum fc = 1\)

The following is an example with 12 bins:

   12
  4.000000   1200.0   0.900  0.182820520E+00
  2.000000   1200.0   0.900  0.143339097E+00
  1.000000   1357.1   0.900  0.118086765E+00
  0.500000   1514.3   0.900  0.101542551E+00
  0.250000   1671.4   0.900  0.127680856E+00
  0.125000   1828.6   0.900  0.143945117E+00
  0.062500   1985.7   0.900  0.109276263E+00
  0.031250   2142.9   0.900  0.531505247E-01
  0.015625   2300.0   0.900  0.164749370E-01
  0.007812   2300.0   0.900  0.324367807E-02
  0.003906   2300.0   0.900  0.405760887E-03
  0.001953   2300.0   0.900  0.339308115E-04

Task SetDbs

The task SetDbs interpolates (for a defined time slab) meteorological variables from the meteorological model grid to the FALL3D computational domain.

Input files

This task requires two input files, i.e. the namelist file name.inp and a gridded dataset of meteorological variables in a netCDF file.

Task SetSrc

The task SetSrc generates emission source terms for the different species. It can also perform a-priori particle aggregation and apply a TGSD cut-off.

Input files

This task requires the namelist file name.inp and the files:

  • name.tgsd.species generated by the task SetTGSD with the Total Grain Size Distributions (TGSD) for each species
  • name.dbs.pro profile file generated by the task SetDbs

Output files

The granulometry file

The granulometry file name.grn is an ASCII file containing information about each bins, including aggregates (if any) and definition of effective bins. This file is created by the SetSrc task from the preliminary TGSD file(s) (i.e., name.tgsd.species). The file format is described in the Table below:

Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4Column 5Column 6Column 7Column 8Column 9
ncnc_eff
diam(1)rho(1)sphe(1)fc(1)cat_code(1)spe_code(1)spe_name(1)spe_tag(1)active(1)
...........................
diam(nc)rho(nc)sphe(nc)fc(nc)cat_code(nc)spe_code(nc)spe_name(nc)spe_tag(nc)active(nc)

where the symbols mean:

symboldefinition
nctotal number of bins
nc_effnumber of effective bins
diambin diameter in \(mm\)
rhobin density in \(kg~m^{-3}\)
sphebin sphericity
fcbin mass fraction satisfying \(\sum fc = 1\)
cat_codebin category code (see Table below)
spe_codebin species code (see Table below)
spe_namebin species name (see Table below)
spe_tagbin tag name (for descriptive purposes only)
activelogical value specifying if the bin is effective or not.

The table below specifies the codes assigned to different species:

category typecategory codespecies codespecies name
particle11tephra
particle12dust
aerosol23H2O
aerosol24SO2
radionuclide35CS134
radionuclide36CS137
radionuclide37I131
radionuclide38SR90
radionuclide39Y90

Example with 7 classes without cut-off:

   7     7
  4.000000   1200.0   0.900  0.137572886E+00   1   1      tephra      lapilli-01  T
  1.000000   1357.1   0.900  0.924286798E-01   1   1      tephra   coarse_ash-01  T
  0.250000   1671.4   0.900  0.194773804E+00   1   1      tephra   coarse_ash-02  T
  0.062500   1985.7   0.900  0.384212886E+00   1   1      tephra     fine_ash-01  T
  0.015625   2300.0   0.900  0.175148480E+00   1   1      tephra     fine_ash-02  T
  0.003906   2300.0   0.900  0.158632644E-01   1   1      tephra     fine_ash-03  T
  0.001000   1000.0   1.000  0.100000000E-01   2   4         SO2             SO2  T

The source file

The source file name.src is an ASCII file containing the definition of the source term. The source can be defined for different time phases during which source values are kept constant. The number, position and values (i.e., Mass Flow Rate) of the source points can vary from one time slice to another and cannot overlap. There is no restriction on the number and duration of the time slices. It allows, in practice, to discretize any kind of source term. This file can be defined directly by the user or generated by the SetSrc task. The format of the file is described in the next table (nc=6 is assumed in the example):

Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4Column 5Column 6
time1time2
nsrcnc
MFR
x(1)y(1)z(1)src(1,1)...src(1,nc)
..................
x(nsrc)y(nsrc)z(nsrc)src(nsrc,1)...src(nsrc,nc)

This block is repeated for each eruption phase.

The symbols mean:

symboldefinition
time1Source phase starting time in seconds after 00:00 UTC of the run day
time2Source phase end time in seconds after 00:00 UTC of the run day
nsrcNumber of source points for this phase. It can vary from one phase to another
ncTotal number of (effective) bins
MFRMass Flow Rate in \(kg~s^{-1}\)
x(i)Longitude of the source i
y(i)Latitude of the source i
z(i)Height in meters a.g.l. of the source i
src(i,j)Mass flow rate in \(kg~s^{-1}\) of bin j and the source point i

The mass flow rate must verify \(\sum \sum src(i,j) = MFR\).

Example for an emission column with 4 particle classes corresponding to a 1-h phase:

  75600   79200
    100       4
 0.121336522E+08
  -72.112200  -40.582800      1520.   0.977000246E+02  0.326596193E+02  0.171776303E+02  0.740473318E+01
  -72.112200  -40.582800      1620.   0.113424788E+03  0.379161663E+02  0.199423601E+02  0.859652075E+01
  (...)
  -72.112200  -40.582800     11320.   0.334110824E+01  0.111688122E+01  0.587434061E+00  0.253224246E+00
  -72.112200  -40.582800     11420.   0.000000000E+00  0.000000000E+00  0.000000000E+00  0.000000000E+00

Task FALL3D

Runs the FALL3D solver

Input files

This task requires the namelist file name.inp and the files:

  • name.grn, the granulometry file created by the SetSrc task. It specifies the relative fractions and properties of each bin, including which bins are effective
  • name.src, the emission source file created by the SetSrc task. It specifies the mass flow rate released at source points (e.g. the eruptive column)
  • name.dbs.nc, meteo database file in netCDF format created by the SetDbs task. It includes the meteorological variables interpolated to the computational grid
  • name.pts (optional), this file specifies a list of tracking points where the time series of relevant variables (e.g., surface PM10 concentration) will be output

Output files

LOG file

The LOG file name.Fall3d.log is an ASCII file where critical information about the simulation run is stored. The contents of this file include:

  • FALL3D copyright
  • Code version
  • Number of processors
  • Starting time of the simulation
  • Input and output files
  • Time range and grid of the meteorological database
  • FALL3D input data (e.g., time range, numerical parameters, output options, etc)
  • Memory requirements
  • Source terms features
  • Particle classes
  • Atmospheric properties, horizontal, and vertical diffusion
  • Terminal velocities
  • Main parameters of the gravity current model
  • Updates about the simulation such as iteration number, critical time step, elapsed time, current simulation time, and a mass balance for the total mass (inside and ouside the computational domain) and the erupted mass
  • Warnings and error

Result file

The result file name.res.nc, written in netCDF format, contains the following output variables (for each species):

  • bin properties (diameter, density, and sphericity)
  • Topography
  • Ground load and, if specified in the control input file, class ground load
  • Wet deposition and, if specified in the control input file, class wet deposition
  • Deposit thickness
  • Total and PMxx (xx = 5, 10, 20) concentration at ground level
  • Total and PMxx (xx = 5, 10, 20) column mas load (vertical integration of concentration)
  • Concentration at different flight levels
  • Total and class concentration at all model layers (if specified in the control input file only)

The output variables are defined by the block MODEL_OUTPUT of the namelist file.

Restart file

The restart file name.rst.nc, written in netCDF format, can be used to start a new run from the end of a previous simulation. This file is automatically generated by FALL3D at specified times as specified in the block MODEL_OUTPUT. A run is initialized with the data stored in the restart file name.rst.nc when restart is enabled in the block TIME_UTC using RESTART = YES.

Task SetEns

The task SetEns runs automatically and foremost whenever ensemble runs are performed. It generates and sets the ensemble members by perturbing a reference state which defines so-called central or reference member. This task also creates a structure of sub-folders (0001, 0002, etc...) where the input and output files for each ensemble member are stored. In order to enable ensemble runs, FALL3D must be executed with the argument -nens, which defines the ensemble size. The parameters to be perturbed are defined in the block ENSEMBLE of the configuration file. In addition, in this block it's possible to set the perturbation amplitude (given as a percentage of the reference value or in absolute terms) and the perturbation sampling strategy (constant or Gaussian distribution).

Notes:

  • The ENSEMBLE block in the configuration file is ignored when the ensemble option is disabled
  • This task is available since the code version 8.1.

Input file

This task requires the namelist file name.inp and the random number files name.ens under the ensemble member sub-folders contain the random numbers required to construct the ensemble. They must be read whenever an ensemble run is performed and the variable RANDOM_NUMBERS_FROM_FILE is set to YES in the configuration file.

Output files

LOG file

The LOG file name.SetEns.log is an ASCII file where the status of the task is reported. In addition, the random numbers used to construct the ensemble are summarized here.

Random number files

The random number files name.ens under the ensemble member sub-folders contain the random numbers required to construct the ensemble. The random numbers are regenerated and the files name.ens updated in every new run as long as the variable RANDOM_NUMBERS_FROM_FILE is set to NO in the configuration file. Otherwise, the files name.ens are read in a new ensemble run and remain unchanged. This is useful to reproduce a previous ensemble run, for example. If the files name.ens do not exist (e.g. in a first run), they are generated regardless of the value assigned to RANDOM_NUMBERS_FROM_FILE.

Task PosEns

The PosEns is a post-processing task and must be executed once an ensemble run has been performed previously. The task merges individual member outputs from a previous ensemble run, computes deterministic and probabilistic variables and produces a single output file name.ens.nc in netCDF format. The required ensemble outputs are specified in the ENSEMBLE_POST block and include ensemble mean, median or user-defined percentiles.

Notes:

  • Only supported in parallel mode
  • This task is available since the code version 8.1.

Input file

This task requires a single input file, i.e. the namelist file name.inp.

Output files

LOG file

The LOG file name.PosEns.log is an ASCII file where the status of the task is reported.

Result file

The result file name.ens.nc contains multiple ensemble outputs as specified by the block ENSEMBLE_POST.

Task PosVal

The task PosVal is used to validate both single-run (compatible code versions 8.x) and ensemble-based deterministic and/or probabilistic outputs against various types of gridded and scattered observation datasets. Observation datasets include satellite-based observations and quantitative retrievals (to validate against cloud column mass), deposit isopach/isopleth maps, and point-wise deposit observations (to validate against deposit thickness or mass load). In all cases, this model task reads the required files, interpolates model and observations into the same grid and computes a series of categorical and quantitative validation metrics that are detailed in the following Section. This model validation task inherits the model domain decomposition structure and, consequently, all metrics are first computed (in parallel) over each spatial sub-domain and then gathered and added to get global results over the whole computational domain.

Meteorological data

In order to run FALL3D, you need to provide meteorological data as an input. Multiple datasets are supported, including global model forecasts (GFS), global analyses and re-analyses (GDAS, ERA5), and mesoscale models.

List of supported datasets

This is the list of meteorological models available:

  • WRF-ARW: The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) (mesoscale model)
  • GFS: The Global Forecast System (global weather forecast model)
  • GEFS: The Global Ensemble Forecast System (global weather forecast model)
  • ERA5: The ERA5 ECMWF reanalysis in pressure levels (global climate and weather renalysis)
  • ERA5ML: The ERA5 ECMWF reanalysis in model levels (global climate and weather renalysis)
  • IFS: The ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (global weather forecast model)
  • CARRA: The Copernicus Arctic Regional Reanalysis (Arctic regional reanalysis )
ID Map Projection Resolution Time Resolution Vertical Coordinates Vertical levels Period Format
Global model forecasts
GFS (NCEP) Regular lat-lon 0.25º 1 h Isobaric 41 +384 h GRIB2
0.5º 3 h 57 +384 h
1.0º 3 h 41 +384 h
GEFS (NCEP) Regular lat-lon 0.5º 3 h Isobaric 31 +840 h GRIB2
IFS (ECMWF) Regular lat-lon 0.125º 1 h Hybrid 137 10 days netCDF or GRIB2
Global model final analyses and re-analyses
ERA5 Regular lat-lon 0.25º 1 h Isobaric 37 1940-present netCDF or GRIB1
ERA5ML Regular lat-lon 0.25º 1 h Hybrid 137 1940-present netCDF or GRIB2
CARRA Lambert Conformal 2.5 km 3 h Isobaric 12 1990-present GRIB2
Mesoscale models
WRF-ARW Regular lat-lon user-defined user-defined Terrain Following
or
Hybrid
user-defined user-defined netCDF
Lambert Conformal
Mercator
Polar Stereographic

Utilities and dependencies

The FALL3D distribution package comes with a set of Python utilities for downloading and pre-processing global meteorological fields required by the model. These python scripts allow also downloading meteorological fields for a particular region and date range. The following scripts are included in the folder Other/Meteo/Utils:

ScriptComments
era5_pl.pyCrops and downloads ERA5 data on pressure levels (37 vertical levels) from the Copernicus Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure
era5_ml.pyCrops and downloads ERA5 data on model levels (137 vertical levels) from the Copernicus Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure
era5_sfc.pyCrops and downloads ERA5 data at surface from the Copernicus Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure
carra_pl.pyDownloads CARRA data on pressure levels (12 vertical levels) from the Copernicus Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure
carra_sfc.pyDownloads CARRA data at surface from the Copernicus Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure
gfs.pyCrops and downloads National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GFS forecasts in GRIB2 native format (pre-processing required) format
gefs.pyCrops and downloads National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GEFS forecasts in GRIB2 native format (pre-processing required) format

The Python scripts above require the fall3dutil package, which can be installed on Linux and MacOS systems from the Python Package Index (PyPI) using pip. To this purpose, you can use a Python virtual environment to avoid conflicts. To create a virtual environment on a typical Linux system, use the basic venv command:

python3 -m venv fall3d_env
source fall3d_env/bin/activate

This will create a new virtual environment in the fall3d_env subdirectory, and configure the current shell to use it as the default python environment. For more information click here. Once the virtual environment is activated, you can install the last version of the fall3dutil package in the fall3d_env using:

pip install fall3dutil

If you decide not to work in an environment, then you can execute this command

python3 -m pip install --user fall3dutil

ERA5: Getting and merging data

ERA5 is the fifth generation ECMWF reanalysis for the global climate and weather from 1940 onwards. Data regridded to a regular lat-lon grid of 0.25 degrees can be obtained from the Climate Data Store. Alternatively, we provide some scripts to automate the downloading process, select the variables required by FALL3D, domain cropping, etc.

Important note: In order to use the Climate Data Store (CDS) API, you need to have an account and install a key as explained here (see Section Install the CDS API key).

Surface data

You need to obtain surface and upper level data in different requests. The script era5_sfc.py can be used to retrieve surface data.

  • era5_sfc.py: Download ERA5 data at surface level via the Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure.

    Command line options. Click to expand

    usage: era5_sfc.py [-h] [-d start_date end_date] [-x lonmin lonmax] [-y latmin latmax] [-r resolution] [-s step] [-b block] [-i file] [-v]
    
    Download ERA5 data (single level) required by FALL3D model.
    
    options:
    -h, --help            show this help message and exit
    -d start_date end_date, --date start_date end_date
                        Date range in format YYYYMMDD
    -x lonmin lonmax, --lon lonmin lonmax
                        Longitude range
    -y latmin latmax, --lat latmin latmax
                        Latitude range
    -r resolution, --res resolution
                        Spatial resolution (deg)
    -s step, --step step  Temporal resolution (h)
    -b block, --block block
                        Block in the configuration file
    -i file, --input file
                        Configuration file
    -v, --verbose         increase output verbosity
    

Upper level data

In addition to surface data, you need to obtain upper level data as well. You can choose between model level data (high vertical resolution) or pressure level data (low vertical resolution).

  • era5_ml.py: Download ERA5 meteorological data on model levels (137 vertical levels) via the Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure.

    Command line options. Click to expand

    usage: era5_ml.py [-h] [-d start_date end_date] [-x lonmin lonmax] [-y latmin latmax] [-r resolution] [-s step] [-b block] [-i file] [-v]
    
    Download ERA5 data (model levels) required by FALL3D model.
    
    options:
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
      -d start_date end_date, --date start_date end_date
                            Date range in format YYYYMMDD
      -x lonmin lonmax, --lon lonmin lonmax
                            Longitude range
      -y latmin latmax, --lat latmin latmax
                            Latitude range
      -r resolution, --res resolution
                            Spatial resolution (deg)
      -s step, --step step  Temporal resolution (h)
      -b block, --block block
                            Block in the configuration file
      -i file, --input file
                            Configuration file
      -v, --verbose         increase output verbosity
    

  • era5_pl.py: Download ERA5 data required on pressure levels (37 vertical levels) via the Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure.

    Command line options. Click to expand

    usage: era5_pl.py [-h] [-d start_date end_date] [-x lonmin lonmax] [-y latmin latmax] [-r resolution] [-s step] [-b block] [-i file] [-v]
    
    Download ERA5 data (pressure levels) required by FALL3D model.
    
    options:
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
      -d start_date end_date, --date start_date end_date
                            Date range in format YYYYMMDD
      -x lonmin lonmax, --lon lonmin lonmax
                            Longitude range
      -y latmin latmax, --lat latmin latmax
                            Latitude range
      -r resolution, --res resolution
                            Spatial resolution (deg)
      -s step, --step step  Temporal resolution (h)
      -b block, --block block
                            Block in the configuration file
      -i file, --input file
                            Configuration file
      -v, --verbose         increase output verbosity
    

Merging data

Once downloaded, ERA5 data on upper levels (pressure or model levels) and at surface has to be merged in order to generate a complete database for the FALL3D model. To this purpose, you can run the command:

cdo merge upper_level.nc surface.nc merged_meteo.nc

to generate the merged_meteo.nc file that will be ingested into FALL3D.

Important notes:

  • Single level and pressure level parameters are available on the C3S Climate Data Store (CDS) disks.

  • ERA5 data on model levels is not available on the CDS disks, but can be accessed from ECMWF data archive (MARS). However, MARS access is relatively slower.

  • You may need to download data using multiple requests for very large datasets. In this case, you should download data from different time ranges separately and then concatenate the files.

  • Note that you cannot concatenate the files directly, because of the packed format in the netcdf files (i.e., data is stored as 16-bit short variables). You can convert the data to float datatype and performing the concatenation in a single command using:

cdo -b F32 mergetime april.nc may.nc output.nc

It will generate a correct output file: output.nc for the total period April-May.

GFS: Getting data

The Global Forecast System (GFS) is a National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) weather forecast model that generates data for dozens of atmospheric and land-soil variables, including temperatures, winds, precipitation, soil moisture, and atmospheric ozone concentration. GFS is a global model with a base horizontal resolution of 18 miles (28 kilometers) between grid points. Temporal resolution covers analysis and forecasts out to 16 days. Horizontal resolution drops to 44 miles (70 kilometers) between grid points for forecasts between one week and two weeks (see more details here).

Data from the last 10 days can be obtained from the NOAA Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS). Alternatively, we provide some scripts to automate the downloading process, select the variables required by FALL3D, domain cropping, etc.

GFS data in GRIB2 format

A script is provided to download the NCEP operational Global Forecast System (GFS) forecasts in GRIB2 format (conversion required):

  • gfs.py: Download GFS forecasts in GRIB2 format. This option needs further conversion to netCDF format before data is ingested by FALL3D.

    Command line options. Click to expand!

    usage: gfs.py [-h] [-d start_date] [-x lonmin lonmax] [-y latmin latmax] [-t tmin tmax] [-r resolution] [-c cycle] [-s step] [-b block] [-i file] [-v]
    
    Download the NCEP operational Global Forecast System (GFS) analysis and forecast data required by the FALL3D model
    
    options:
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
      -d start_date, --date start_date
                            Initial date in format YYYYMMDD
      -x lonmin lonmax, --lon lonmin lonmax
                            Longitude range
      -y latmin latmax, --lat latmin latmax
                            Latitude range
      -t tmin tmax, --time tmin tmax
                            Forecast time range (h)
      -r resolution, --res resolution
                            Spatial resolution (deg)
      -c cycle, --cycle cycle
                            Cycle
      -s step, --step step  Temporal resolution (h)
      -b block, --block block
                            Block in the configuration file
      -i file, --input file
                            Configuration file
      -v, --verbose         increase output verbosity
    

GFS data in netCDF format

FALL3D requires input meteorological data in netCDF format. Consequently, GFS data must be concatenated and converted from GRIB2 to obtain a single netCDF file. To this purpose, the grib utility wgrib2 can be used (more information here). As an example, a bash script is included in the FALL3D distribution to perform the conversion: Other/Meteo/Utils/grib2nc.sh. Just edit the file header according to your GFS files:

########## Edit header ##########
WGRIBEXE=wgrib2
OUTPUTFILE=output.nc
TABLEFILE=grib_tables/gfs_0p25.levels
TMIN=0
TMAX=12
STEP=6
CYCLE=12
DATE=20230404
GRIBPATH=~/fall3d/fall3dutil/tests
GRIBFILE (){
    fname=${GRIBPATH}/gfs.t${CYCLE}z.pgrb2.0p25.f${HOUR}
    echo ${fname}
}
#################################

Important note:

  • The variable TABLEFILE specifies the list of vertical levels and depends on the resolution of your GFS data. In the folder grib_tables you'll find the tables for resolutions of 0.25° (gfs_0p25.levels), 0.50° (gfs_0p50.levels) and 1.00° (gfs_1p00.levels). Define TABLEFILE accordingly.

GEFS: Getting data

The Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) is a weather model created by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) that generates 31 separate forecasts (ensemble members) to address underlying uncertainties in the input data such limited coverage, instruments or observing systems biases, and the limitations of the model itself. GEFS quantifies these uncertainties by generating multiple forecasts, which in turn produce a range of potential outcomes based on differences or perturbations applied to the data after it has been incorporated into the model. Each forecast compensates for a different set of uncertainties (see more details here).

Data from the last 4 days can be obtained from the NOAA Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS). Alternatively, we provide some scripts to automate the downloading process, select the variables required by FALL3D, domain cropping, etc.

GEFS data in GRIB2 format

A script is provided to download the NCEP Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) forecasts in GRIB2 format (conversion required):

  • gefs.py: Download GEFS forecasts in GRIB2 format. This option needs further conversion to netCDF format before data is ingested by FALL3D.

    Command line options. Click to expand!

    usage: gefs.py [-h] [-d start_date] [-x lonmin lonmax] [-y latmin latmax] [-t tmin tmax] [-e ensmin ensmax] [-r resolution] [-c cycle] [-s step] [-b block]
                   [-i file] [-v]
    
    Download data from the atmospheric component of NCEP operational global ensemble modeling suite, Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS), required by the
    FALL3D model
    
    options:
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
      -d start_date, --date start_date
                            Initial date in format YYYYMMDD
      -x lonmin lonmax, --lon lonmin lonmax
                            Longitude range
      -y latmin latmax, --lat latmin latmax
                            Latitude range
      -t tmin tmax, --time tmin tmax
                            Forecast time range (h)
      -e ensmin ensmax, --ens ensmin ensmax
                            Ensemble member range
      -r resolution, --res resolution
                            Spatial resolution (deg)
      -c cycle, --cycle cycle
                            Cycle
      -s step, --step step  Temporal resolution (h)
      -b block, --block block
                            Block in the configuration file
      -i file, --input file
                            Configuration file
      -v, --verbose         increase output verbosity
    

GEFS data in netCDF format

FALL3D requires input meteorological data in netCDF format. Consequently, GEFS data must be concatenated and converted from GRIB2 to obtain a set of netCDF files. To this purpose, the grib utility wgrib2 can be used (more information here). As an example, a bash script is included in the FALL3D distribution to perform the conversion: Other/Meteo/Utils/grib2nc-ens.sh. Just edit the file header according to your GEFS files:

########## Edit header ########## 
WGRIBEXE=wgrib2
OUTPUTFILE=output.nc
TABLEFILE=grib_tables/gefs_0p50.levels
TMIN=0
TMAX=48
STEP=3
CYCLE=12
DATE=20230404
GRIBPATH=./
GRIBFILE (){
    fnameA=${GRIBPATH}/gep04.t${CYCLE}z.pgrb2a.0p50.f${HOUR}
    fnameB=${GRIBPATH}/gep04.t${CYCLE}z.pgrb2b.0p50.f${HOUR}
}
################################# 

CARRA: Getting data

The goal of the Copernicus Arctic Regional Reanalysis (CARRA) system was to produce the first regional atmospheric reanalysis targeted for European parts of the Arctic areas. The reanalysis covers the period from September 1990 (>30 years). The CARRA reanalysis dataset is produced at 2.5 km horizontal mesh. The reanalysis data cover two domains in the European sector of the Arctic shown below (see more information here):

domains

Data can be obtained from the Climate Data Store. Alternatively, we provide some scripts to automate the downloading process, select the variables required by FALL3D, domain cropping, etc.

Important note: In order to use the Climate Data Store (CDS) API, you need to have an account and install a key as explained here (see Section Install the CDS API key).

Surface data

You need to obtain surface and upper level data in different requests. The script carra_sfc.py can be used to retrieve surface data.

  • carra_sfc.py: Download CARRA data at surface level via the Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure.

    Command line options. Click to expand

    usage: carra_sfc.py [-h] [-d start_date end_date] [-s step] [-b block] [-i file] [-v]
    
    Download CARRA data (single level) required by FALL3D model.
    
    options:
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
      -d start_date end_date, --date start_date end_date
                            Date range in format YYYYMMDD
      -s step, --step step  Temporal resolution (h)
      -b block, --block block
                            Block in the configuration file
      -i file, --input file
                            Configuration file
      -v, --verbose         increase output verbosity
    

Upper level data

In addition to surface data, you need to obtain upper level data as well.

  • carra_pl.py: Download CARRA data required on pressure levels (12 vertical levels) via the Climate Data Store (CDS) infrastructure.

    Command line options. Click to expand

    usage: carra_pl.py [-h] [-d start_date end_date] [-s step] [-b block] [-i file] [-v]
    
    Download CARRA data (pressure levels) required by FALL3D model.
    
    options:
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
      -d start_date end_date, --date start_date end_date
                            Date range in format YYYYMMDD
      -s step, --step step  Temporal resolution (h)
      -b block, --block block
                            Block in the configuration file
      -i file, --input file
                            Configuration file
      -v, --verbose         increase output verbosity
    

Merging data

Once downloaded, CARRA data on upper levels (pressure levels) and at surface in GRIB format has to be converted and merged in order to generate a single netCDF file for the FALL3D model. Unfortunately, the CDS API does not allow domain subsets to be retrieved and, typically, very large files need to be downloaded. This can lead to memory conflicts during the format conversion or merging process. This simple python scripts can be used in these cases:

import xarray as xr
from dask.diagnostics import ProgressBar
import cfgrib

### Parameters ###
fname_out    = 'merged_meteo.nc'
fname_in_sfc = 'surface.grib'
fname_in_pl  = 'pressure.grib'
##################

ds_list  = cfgrib.open_datasets(fname_in_pl)
ds_list += cfgrib.open_datasets(fname_in_sfc)

keys2remove = ['surface','heightAboveGround']

for i,ds in enumerate(ds_list):
    ds_list[i] = ds.drop_vars(keys2remove,errors='ignore')
    if 'sr' in ds:
        print("******Warn******* Correcting coordinates...")
        ds_list[i]['latitude']  = ds_list[0].latitude
        ds_list[i]['longitude'] = ds_list[0].longitude

print("merging....")
ds = xr.merge(ds_list).chunk(chunks={"time": 1})

print("saving...")
delayed_obj = ds.to_netcdf(fname_out, compute=False)

with ProgressBar():
    results = delayed_obj.compute()

to generate the merged_meteo.nc file that will be ingested into FALL3D.

Important notes:

  • This process allows access to data of the CARRA-west domain. Access to CARRA-east domain has not been implemented yet.

WRF-ARW

The Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) model is a flexible, state-of-the-art atmospheric simulation system, and is portable and efficient on parallel computing platforms. It is suitable for use across scales, ranging from meters to thousands of kilometers, for a broad range of applications. For detailed information go to the WRF Users' Guide.

Tipically, WRF data is not publicly available. However, WRF is used by weather agencies all over the world to generate weather forecasts and, in some cases, data can be ordered by special request. Alternatively, you can run the model by yourself since WRF is an open-source code in the public domain. The following tutorial can be helpful for this purpose.

The namelist file

The namelist file name.inp is an input configuration file in ASCII format required by all tasks. It consists of a set of blocks defining physical parameterisations, time ranges, model domain, emission source, numerical schemes, etc. Each task reads only the necessary blocks generating self-consistent input files. Parameters within a block are listed one per record, in arbitrary order, and optionally can be followed by one (or more) blank space and a comment. Comments start with the exclamation mark symbol "!". Real numbers can be expressed using the FORTRAN notation (e.g. 12E7).

An example of namelist file can be found in the FALL3D distribution under the folder Example/Example.inp.

Next, a full description of each block in the namelist input file is presented.

Block TIME_UTC

This block defines variables related to date and time. It is used by FALL3D, SetDbs, and SetSrc tasks

  1. YEAR = (integer)
    • Year of the starting date
  2. MONTH = (integer)
    • Month of the starting date
  3. DAY = (integer)
    • Day of the starting date
  4. RUN_START_(HOURS_AFTER_00) = (float)
    • Starting time in hours after 00:00 UTC of the starting day
  5. RUN_END_(HOURS_AFTER_00) = (float)
    • End time in hours after 00:00 UTC of the starting day
    • Note: Runs can continue even after the source term has been switched off (e.g., when the eruption has stopped)
  6. INITIAL_CONDITION = (options)
    • Type of initial concentration field
    • Input options:
      • NONE: Initial concentration is zero
      • INSERTION: Initial concentration from an input file
      • RESTART: Initial concentration from a previous run
  7. RESTART_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the restart file
    • Note: Only used if INITIAL_CONDITION = RESTART
  8. RESTART_ENSEMBLE_BASEPATH = (string)
    • Root path for RESTART_FILE
    • Optional
    • Note: Used for ensemble runs when multiple restart files are available (RESTART_ENSEMBLE_BASEPATH/0001/RESTART_FILE...). If not provided a single restart file is used for the ensemble (RESTART_FILE)

Block INSERTION_DATA

This block is read by the FALL3D task only if INITIAL_CONDITION = INSERTION

  1. INSERTION_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the initial condition file in netCDF format (e.g. a satellite retrieval)
  2. INSERTION_DICTIONARY_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the insertion dictionary file defining the variable names. An example can be found in Other/Sat/Sat.tbl
    • Optional
    • Note: If not given, a default dictionary will be used
  3. INSERTION_TIME_SLAB = (integer)
    • Time slab in the insertion file to be used as the initial conditions
  4. DIAMETER_CUT_OFF_(MIC) = (float)
    • Cut-off diameter in microns. Maximum particle diameter used to define the initial condition
    • Optional

Block METEO_DATA

This block defines variables related to the input meteorological dataset. It is read by the SetDbs task

  1. METEO_DATA_FORMAT = (options)
    • Input meteorological model
    • Input options:
      • WRF: Advanced Research WRF (ARW), WRF-ARW - Mesoscale model
      • GFS: Global Forecast System - Global weather forecast model
      • ERA5: ERA5 ECMWF reanalysis in pressure levels - Global climate and weather renalysis
      • ERA5ML: ERA5 ECMWF reanalysis in model levels - Global climate and weather renalysis
      • IFS: ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System - Global weather forecast model
      • CARRA: Copernicus Arctic Regional Reanalysis in pressure levels - Arctic regional reanalysis
  2. METEO_DATA_DICTIONARY_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the database dictionary file defining the variable names. An example can be found in the folder Other/Meteo/Tables
    • Optional
    • Note: If not given, a default dictionary for each model will be used
  3. METEO_DATA_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the meteo model data file in netCDF format
  4. METEO_ENSEMBLE_BASEPATH = (string)
    • Root path for METEO_DATA_FILE
    • Optional
    • Note: Used for ensemble runs when multiple meteo files are available (METEO_ENSEMBLE_BASEPATH/0001/METEO_DATA_FILE...). If not provided a single meteo file is used for the ensemble (METEO_DATA_FILE)
  5. METEO_LEVELS_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the table defining the coefficients for vertical hybrid levels
    • Note: Only required if METEO_DATA_FORMAT = ERA5ML
  6. DBS_BEGIN_METEO_DATA_(HOURS_AFTER_00) = (float)
    • Starting time for the database file in hours after 00:00 UTC of the starting day
  7. DBS_END_METEO_DATA_(HOURS_AFTER_00) = (float)
    • End time for the database file in hours after 00:00 UTC of the starting day
  8. METEO_COUPLING_INTERVAL_(MIN) = (float)
    • Time interval to update (couple) meteorological variables
    • Note: wind velocity is linearly interpolated in time for each time step
  9. MEMORY_CHUNK_SIZE = (integer)
    • Size of memory chunks used to store meteo data timesteps
    • Note: Must be greater than 1

Block GRID

This block defines the grid variables needed by the SetDbs and FALL3D tasks

  1. HORIZONTAL_MAPPING = (options)
    • Horizontal mapping
    • Input options:
      • CARTESIAN: Cartesian mapping
      • SPHERICAL: Spherical mapping
  2. VERTICAL_MAPPING = (options)
    • Vertical mapping
    • Input options:
      • SIGMA_NO_DECAY: Terrain following levels with no decay
      • SIGMA_LINEAR_DECAY: Terrain following levels with linear decay from surface to the flat top
      • SIGMA_EXPONENTIAL_DECAY: Terrain following levels with exponential decay from surface to the flat top
  3. LONMIN = (float)
    • West longitude in decimal degrees of the domain
  4. LONMAX = (float)
    • East longitude in decimal degrees of the domain
  5. LATMIN = (float)
    • South latitude in decimal degrees of the domain
  6. LATMAX = (float)
    • North latitude in decimal degrees of the domai
  7. NX = (options)
    • Define the number of grid cells or resolution along dimension x
    • Input options:
      • (integer): Number of grid cells (mass points) along x
      • RESOLUTION (float): Resolution (grid size) along x
  8. NY = (options)
    • Define the number of grid cells or resolution along dimension y
    • Input options:
      • (integer): Number of grid cells (mass points) along y
      • RESOLUTION (float): Resolution (grid size) along y
  9. NZ = (integer)
    • Define the number of grid cells (mass points) along dimension z
  10. ZMAX_(M) = (float)
    • Top height of the computational domain in meters
  11. SIGMA_VALUES = (float_list)
    • List of values of sigma coordinate in the range (0,1). The list size should be less or equal than NZ+1
    • Optional
    • Note: If not present, uniform distribution of vertical layers is assumed

Block SPECIES

This block is used by FALL3D, SetTgsd, and SetSrc tasks and defines which species are modeled

  1. TEPHRA = (options)
    • Indicate if TEPHRA species are included
    • Input options:
      • ON: Activate tephra particle species
      • OFF: Deactivate tephra particle species
  2. DUST = (options)
    • Indicate if DUST species are included
    • Input options:
      • ON: Activate dust particle species
      • OFF: Deactivate dust particle species
  3. H2O = (options)
    • Indicate if H2O aerosol species are included
    • Input options:
      • ON MASS_FRACTION_(%) = (float): Activate H2O aerosol species and set the mass fraction in percent
      • OFF: Deactivate H2O aerosol species
    • Note: Aerosols can run independently or coupled with tephra species. If TEPHRA = ON it is assumed that the aerosol species are all of magmatic origin mass fraction of SO2 and H2O are relative to tephra. If TEPHRA = OFF then the mass fraction of aerosols must sum 1
  4. SO2 = (options)
    • Indicate if SO2 aerosol species are included
    • Input options:
      • ON MASS_FRACTION_(%) = (float): Activate SO2 aerosol species and set the mass fraction in percent
      • OFF: Deactivate SO2 aerosol species
    • Note: Aerosols can run independently or coupled with tephra species. If TEPHRA = ON it is assumed that the aerosol species are all of magmatic origin mass fraction of SO2 and H2O are relative to tephra. If TEPHRA = OFF then the mass fraction of aerosols must sum 1
  5. CS134 = (options)
    • Indicate if CS-134 radionuclide species are included
    • Input options:
      • ON MASS_FRACTION_(%) = (float): Activate Cs-134 radionuclide species and set the mass fraction in percent
      • OFF: Deactivate Cs-134 radionuclide species
    • Note: All species of RADIONUCLIDES can run simultaneously but are incompatible with species of category PARTICLES. Mass fraction of all radionuclides must sum 1
  6. CS137 = (options)
    • Indicate if CS-137 radionuclide species are included
    • Input options:
      • ON MASS_FRACTION_(%) = (float): Activate Cs-137 radionuclide species and set the mass fraction in percent
      • OFF: Deactivate Cs-137 radionuclide species
    • Note: All species of RADIONUCLIDES can run simultaneously but are incompatible with species of category PARTICLES. Mass fraction of all radionuclides must sum 1
  7. I131 = (options)
    • Indicate if I-131 radionuclide species are included
    • Input options:
      • ON MASS_FRACTION_(%) = (float): Activate I-131 radionuclide species and set the mass fraction in percent
      • OFF: Deactivate I-131 radionuclide species
    • Note: All species of RADIONUCLIDES can run simultaneously but are incompatible with species of category PARTICLES. Mass fraction of all radionuclides must sum 1
  8. SR90 = (options)
    • Indicate if SR-90 radionuclide species are included
    • Input options:
      • ON MASS_FRACTION_(%) = (float): Activate Sr-90 radionuclide species and set the mass fraction in percent
      • OFF: Deactivate Sr-90 radionuclide species
    • Note: All species of RADIONUCLIDES can run simultaneously but are incompatible with species of category PARTICLES. Mass fraction of all radionuclides must sum 1
  9. Y90 = (options)
    • Indicate if Y-90 radionuclide species are included
    • Input options:
      • ON MASS_FRACTION_(%) = (float): Activate Y-90 radionuclide species and set the mass fraction in percent
      • OFF: Deactivate Y-90 radionuclide species
    • Note: All species of RADIONUCLIDES can run simultaneously but are incompatible with species of category PARTICLES. Mass fraction of all radionuclides must sum 1

Block SPECIES_TGSD

These blocks define the TGSD for each species and are used by the SetTgsd task to generate some basic distributions

  1. NUMBER_OF_BINS = (integer)
    • Number of bins in the TGSD
    • Note: This value can be different from the number of classes defined in the granulometry file *.grn created by the SetSrc task if aggregate bins are included later on or if a cut-off diameter is imposed
  2. FI_RANGE = (float_list)
    • A list of two values defining the minimum and maximum diameters in phi units
  3. DENSITY_RANGE = (float_list)
    • A list of two values defining the minimum and maximum densities
    • Note: Linear interpolation (in phi) is assumed between the extremes
  4. SPHERICITY_RANGE = (float_list)
    • A list of two values defining the minimum and maximum values for sphericity
    • Note: Linear interpolation (in phi) is assumed between the extremes
  5. DISTRIBUTION = (options)
    • Type of TGSD distribution
    • Input options:
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian distribution
      • BIGAUSSIAN: bi-Gaussian distribution
      • WEIBULL: Weibull distribution
      • BIWEIBULL: bi-Weibull distribution
      • CUSTOM: Custom distribution from an external user file
      • ESTIMATE: TGSD is estimated from column height and magma viscosity (for tephra species only)

Sub-block IF_GAUSSIAN

Used when DISTRIBUTION=GAUSSIAN

  1. FI_MEAN = (float)
    • Mean of the gaussian distribution in phi units
  2. FI_DISP = (float)
    • Standard deviation of the gaussian distribution in phi units

Sub-block IF_BIGAUSSIAN

Used when DISTRIBUTION=BIGAUSSIAN

  1. FI_MEAN = (float_list)
    • A list of two values in phi units defining the means of two gaussian distributions
  2. FI_DISP = (float_list)
    • A list of two values in phi units defining the standard deviations of two gaussian distributions
  3. MIXING_FACTOR = (float)
    • The mixing factor between both gaussian distributions

Sub-block IF_WEIBULL

Used when DISTRIBUTION=WEIBULL

  1. FI_SCALE = (float)
    • Parameter of the Weibull distribution
  2. W_SHAPE = (float)
    • Parameter of the Weibull distribution

Sub-block IF_BIWEIBULL

Used when DISTRIBUTION=BIWEIBULL

  1. FI_SCALE = (float_list)
    • List of parameters for the bi-Weibull distribution
  2. W_SHAPE = (float_list)
    • List of parameters for the bi-Weibull distribution
  3. MIXING_FACTOR = (float)
    • Parameter of the bi-Weibull distribution

Sub-block IF_CUSTOM

Used when DISTRIBUTION=CUSTOM

  1. FILE = (string)
    • Path to the file with the custom TGSD

Sub-block IF_ESTIMATE

Used when DISTRIBUTION=ESTIMATE

  1. VISCOSITY_(PAS) = (float)
    • Magma viscosity in Pa.s
  2. HEIGHT_ABOVE_VENT_(M) = (float)
    • Eruption column height above vent in meters

Block PARTICLE_AGGREGATION

This block is used by task SetSrc and controls particle aggregation and cut-off (for categories particles and radionuclides only)

  1. PARTICLE_CUT_OFF = (options)
    • Specifies a cut off diamater
    • Input options:
      • NONE: No cut-off used
      • FI_LOWER_THAN (float): Define an upper cut-off limit in phi units
      • FI_LARGER_THAN (float): Define a lower cut-off limit in phi units
      • D_(MIC)_LARGER_THAN (float): Define an upper cut-off limit for diameter in microns
      • D_(MIC)_LOWER_THAN (float): Define a lower cut-off limit for diameter in microns
  2. AGGREGATION_MODEL = (options)
    • Define a particle aggregation parametrization
    • Input options:
      • NONE: No aggregation
      • CORNELL: Cornell model (Cornell et al., 1983)
      • COSTA: Costa model (Costa et al., 2010). Valid only for tephra particles and PLUME source type
      • PERCENTAGE: Percentage model (Sulpizio et al., 2012)
  3. NUMBER_OF_AGGREGATE_BINS = (integer)
    • Number of aggregate bins (default value is 1)
    • Note: Only used if AGGREGATION_MODEL!=NONE
  4. DIAMETER_AGGREGATES_(MIC) = (float_list)
    • Diameter of aggregate bins in microns
    • Note: Only used if AGGREGATION_MODEL!=NONE
  5. DENSITY_AGGREGATES_(KGM3) = (float_list)
    • Density of aggregate bins in kg m-3
    • Note: Only used if AGGREGATION_MODEL!=NONE
  6. PERCENTAGE_(%) = (float_list)
    • Percentage of aggregate bins
    • Note: Only used if AGGREGATION_MODEL=PERCENTAGE
  7. VSET_FACTOR = (float)
    • Multiplicative correction factor for settling velocity of aggregates
    • Note: Only used if AGGREGATION_MODEL=PERCENTAGE
  8. FRACTAL_EXPONENT = (float)
    • Fractal exponent (see Costa et al., 2010 for details)
    • Note: Only used if AGGREGATION_MODEL=COSTA

Block SOURCE

This block defines the variables needed by the SetSrc task to generate the source term for the emission phases

  1. SOURCE_TYPE = (options)
    • Type of source vertical distribution
    • Input options:
      • POINT: Point source
      • SUZUKI: Suzuki-type source
      • TOP-HAT: Top-hat source
      • PLUME: Plume source (based on the 1D BPT)
      • RESUSPENSION: Resuspension source
  2. SOURCE_START_(HOURS_AFTER_00) = (float_list)
    • List of source start time for each phase
    • Note: Alternatively, a file can be provided with 3 columns specifying start time/end time/height above vent for each phase. This option is useful in case of many source phases
  3. SOURCE_END_(HOURS_AFTER_00) = (float_list)
    • List of source end time for each phase
    • Note: If a file is provided in SOURCE_START_(HOURS_AFTER_00) this line is ignored
  4. LON_VENT = (float)
    • Vent longitude
  5. LAT_VENT = (float)
    • Vent latitude
  6. VENT_HEIGHT_(M) = (float)
    • Height of the vent in meters a.s.l.
  7. HEIGHT_ABOVE_VENT_(M) = (float_list)
    • List of source heights in meters above the vent for each eruptive phase
    • Note: The plume heights must be lower than the top of the computational domain. If a file is provided in SOURCE_START_(HOURS_AFTER_00) this line is ignored
  8. MASS_FLOW_RATE_(KGS) = (options)
    • Defines the MFR or how the it should be computed (i.e. derived from column height)
    • Input options:
      • (float_list): Mass flow rate in kg/s for each eruptive phase
      • ESTIMATE-MASTIN: MFR is computed using the empirical fit by Mastin et al. (2009)
      • ESTIMATE-WOODHOUSE: MFR is computed using the empirical fit by Woodhouse et al. (2013)
      • ESTIMATE-DEGRUYTER: MFR is computed using the empirical fit by Degruyter and Bonadonna (2012)
  9. ALFA_PLUME = (float)
    • Entrainment coefficient
    • Note: Only used if MASS_FLOW_RATE_(KGS) is set to ESTIMATE-WOODHOUSE or ESTIMATE-DEGRUYTER
  10. BETA_PLUME = (float)
    • Entrainment coefficient
    • Note: Only used if MASS_FLOW_RATE_(KGS) is set to ESTIMATE-WOODHOUSE or ESTIMATE-DEGRUYTER
  11. EXIT_TEMPERATURE_(K) = (float)
    • Mixture temperature
    • Note: Only used if SOURCE_TYPE=PLUME or to estimate MFR
  12. EXIT_WATER_FRACTION_(%) = (float)
    • Total (magmatic) water fraction
    • Note: Only used if SOURCE_TYPE=PLUME or to estimate MFR

Sub-block IF_SUZUKI_SOURCE

Used when SOURCE_TYPE=IF_SUZUKI_SOURCE

  1. A = (float_list)
    • List of values giving the parameter A in the Suzuki distribution (Pfeiffer et al., 2005) for each phase
  2. L = (float_list)
    • List of values giving the parameter lambda in the Suzuki distribution (Pfeiffer et al., 2005) for each phase

Sub-block IF_TOP-HAT_SOURCE

Used when SOURCE_TYPE=IF_TOP-HAT_SOURCE

  1. THICKNESS_(M) = (float_list)
    • List of thickness of the emission slab in meters for each phase

Sub-block IF_PLUME_SOURCE

Used when SOURCE_TYPE=PLUME

  1. SOLVE_PLUME_FOR = (options)
    • Configure the FPLUME model embedded in FALL3D
    • Input options:
      • MFR: SetSrc solves for mass flow rate given the column height (inverse problem)
      • HEIGHT: SetSrc solves for column height given the mass flow rate
  2. MFR_SEARCH_RANGE = (float_list)
    • Two values n and m such that 10^n and 10^m specify the range of MFR values admitted in the iterative solving procedure
    • Note: Only used if SOLVE_PLUME_FOR=MFR
  3. EXIT_VELOCITY_(MS) = (float_list)
    • List of values of the magma exit velocity in m/s at the vent for each eruptive phase
  4. EXIT_GAS_WATER_TEMPERATURE_(K) = (float_list)
    • List of values of the exit gas water temperature in K for each eruptive phase
  5. EXIT_LIQUID_WATER_TEMPERATURE_(K) = (float_list)
    • List of values of the exit liquid water temperature in K for each eruptive phase
  6. EXIT_SOLID_WATER_TEMPERATURE_(K) = (float_list)
    • List of values of the exit solid water temperature in K for each eruptive phase
  7. EXIT_GAS_WATER_FRACTION_(%) = (float_list)
    • List of values of the exit gas water fraction in percent for each eruptive phase
  8. EXIT_LIQUID_WATER_FRACTION_(%) = (float_list)
    • List of values of the exit liquid water fraction in percent for each eruptive phase
  9. EXIT_SOLID_WATER_FRACTION_(%) = (float_list)
    • List of values of the exit solid water fraction in percent for each eruptive phase
  10. WIND_COUPLING = (options)
    • If wind coupling is considered
    • Input options:
      • YES: Enabled
      • NO: Vertical wind velocity profile is assumed zero
  11. AIR_MOISTURE = (options)
    • Air moisture
    • Input options:
      • YES: Enabled
      • NO: Dry entrained air only
  12. LATENT_HEAT = (options)
    • Latent heat
    • Input options:
      • YES: Enabled
      • NO: Latent heat contribution is neglected
  13. REENTRAINMENT = (options)
    • Reentrainment
    • Input options:
      • YES: Enabled
      • NO: Particle reentrainment is neglected
  14. BURSIK_FACTOR = (float)
    • Bursik factor xi
    • Note: If not given, assumed equal to 0.1
  15. Z_MIN_WIND = (float)
    • Ignore wind entrainment below this zvalue (low jet region)
    • Note: If not given, assumed equal to 100
  16. C_UMBRELLA = (float)
    • Thickness of umbrella region relative to Hb (>1)
    • Note: If not given, assumed equal to 1.32
  17. A_S = (options)
    • Plume entrainment coefficient
    • Input options:
      • CONSTANT (float_list): A list of two values for: (value jet, value plume)
      • KAMINSKI-R: TODO
      • KAMINSKI-C: TODO
      • OLD: TODO
  18. A_V = (options)
    • Plume entrainment coefficient
    • Input options:
      • CONSTANT (float): A constant value is assumed
      • TATE: TODO

Block ENSEMBLE

This block is used by task SetEns to generate the ensemble members

  1. RANDOM_NUMBERS_FROM_FILE = (options)
    • Indicate whether the ensemble should be reconstructed
    • Input options:
      • YES: Read ensemble perturbations from *.ens files
      • NO: Reconstruct the ensemble and generate new *.ens files
    • Note: If *.ens are not found, option RANDOM_NUMBERS_FROM_FILE = NO will be used
  2. PERTURBATE_COLUMN_HEIGHT = (options)
    • Perturbate eruption column height
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
  3. PERTURBATE_MASS_FLOW_RATE = (options)
    • Perturbate mass eruption rate
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: This option is deactivated for SOURCE_TYPE=PLUME or MASS_FLOW_RATE_(KGS)=ESTIMATE-* options
  4. PERTURBATE_SOURCE_START = (options)
    • Perturbate the starting time of each eruptive phase
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
  5. PERTURBATE_SOURCE_DURATION = (options)
    • Perturbate the duration time of each eruptive phase
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
  6. PERTURBATE_TOP-HAT_THICKNESS = (options)
    • Perturbate the top-hat thickness
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: Only used if SOURCE_TYPE = TOP-HAT
  7. PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_A = (options)
    • Perturbate the Suzuki coefficient A
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: Only used if SOURCE_TYPE = SUZUKI
  8. PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_L = (options)
    • Perturbate the Suzuki coefficient L
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: Only used if SOURCE_TYPE = SUZUKI
  9. PERTURBATE_WIND = (options)
    • Perturbate the horizontal wind components
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: Zonal and meridional wind components are independently perturbed (two random numbers are generated)
  10. PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_HEIGHT = (options)
    • Perturbate the cloud insertion height
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: Only used if INITIAL_CONDITION = INSERTION
  11. PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_THICKNESS = (options)
    • Perturbate the cloud insertion thickness
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: Only used if INITIAL_CONDITION = INSERTION
  12. PERTURBATE_FI_MEAN = (options)
    • Perturbate the mean of the TGSD
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: For bimodal distributions BIGAUSSIAN and ESTIMATE, only the fine subpopulation is perturbed
  13. PERTURBATE_DIAMETER_AGGREGATES_(MIC) = (options)
    • Perturbate the diameter of the particle aggregates
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: Only used if AGGREGATION_MODEL != NONE
  14. PERTURBATE_DENSITY_AGGREGATES = (options)
    • Perturbate the density of the particle aggregates
    • Input options:
      • NO: Disable perturbation
      • RELATIVE: Perturbation range given as a fraction of the central value
      • ABSOLUTE: Perturbation range given as an absolute value
    • Note: Only used if AGGREGATION_MODEL != NONE

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_COLUMN_HEIGHT

Used when PERTURBATE_COLUMN_HEIGHT != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in meters (PERTURBATE_COLUMN_HEIGHT = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_COLUMN_HEIGHT = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_MASS_FLOW_RATE

Used when PERTURBATE_MASS_FLOW_RATE != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in kg/s (PERTURBATE_MASS_FLOW_RATE = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_MASS_FLOW_RATE = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_SOURCE_START

Used when PERTURBATE_SOURCE_START != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in s (PERTURBATE_SOURCE_START = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_SOURCE_START = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_SOURCE_DURATION

Used when PERTURBATE_SOURCE_DURATION != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in s (PERTURBATE_SOURCE_DURATION = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_SOURCE_DURATION = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_TOP-HAT_THICKNESS

Used when PERTURBATE_TOP-HAT_THICKNESS != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in meters (PERTURBATE_TOP-HAT_THICKNESS = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_TOP-HAT_THICKNESS = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_A

Used when PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_A != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range of the dimensionless parameter A in absolute units (IF_PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_A = ABSOLUTE) or percent (IF_PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_A = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_L

Used when PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_L != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range of the dimensionless parameter L in absolute units (IF_PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_L = ABSOLUTE) or percent (IF_PERTURBATE_SUZUKI_L = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_WIND

Used when PERTURBATE_WIND != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in m/s (PERTURBATE_WIND = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_WIND = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_HEIGHT

Used when PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_HEIGHT != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in meters (IF_PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_HEIGHT = ABSOLUTE) or percent (IF_PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_HEIGHT = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_THICKNESS

Used when PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_THICKNESS != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in meters (PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_THICKNESS = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_DATA_INSERTION_CLOUD_THICKNESS = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_FI_MEAN

Used when PERTURBATE_FI_MEAN != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in phi units (PERTURBATE_FI_MEAN = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_FI_MEAN = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_DIAMETER_AGGREGATES_(MIC)

Used when PERTURBATE_DIAMETER_AGGREGATES_(MIC) != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in microns (PERTURBATE_DIAMETER_AGGREGATES_(MIC) = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_DIAMETER_AGGREGATES_(MIC) = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Sub-block IF_PERTURBATE_DENSITY_AGGREGATES

Used when PERTURBATE_DENSITY_AGGREGATES != NO

  1. PERTURBATION_RANGE = (float)
    • Define the perturbation range in kg/m3 (PERTURBATE_DENSITY_AGGREGATES = ABSOLUTE) or percent (PERTURBATE_DENSITY_AGGREGATES = RELATIVE)
  2. PDF = (options)
    • Define the sampling Probability Density Function (PDF)
    • Input options:
      • UNIFORM: Uniform (constant) PDF
      • GAUSSIAN: Gaussian PDF centred at the reference value

Block ENSEMBLE_POST

The block is used by the task PosEns for post-processing ensemble runs

  1. POSTPROCESS_MEMBERS = (options)
    • Define if individual member results are included in the output file .ens.nc
    • Input options:
      • YES: Include individual members
      • NO: Exclude individual members
    • Note: The option POSTPROCESS_MEMBERS = YES may result in very large files
  2. POSTPROCESS_MEAN = (options)
    • Postprocess the ensemble mean in the output file *.ens.nc
    • Input options:
      • YES: Include ensemble mean
      • NO: Exclude ensemble mean
  3. POSTPROCESS_LOGMEAN = (options)
    • Postprocess the ensemble (log) mean in the output file *.ens.nc
    • Input options:
      • YES: Include ensemble (log) mean
      • NO: Exclude ensemble (log) mean
  4. POSTPROCESS_MEDIAN = (options)
    • Postprocess the ensemble median in the output file *.ens.nc
    • Input options:
      • YES: Include ensemble median
      • NO: Exclude ensemble median
  5. POSTPROCESS_STANDARD_DEV = (options)
    • Postprocess the ensemble standard deviation in the output file *.ens.nc
    • Input options:
      • YES: Include ensemble standard deviation
      • NO: Exclude ensemble standard deviation
  6. POSTPROCESS_PROBABILITY = (options)
    • Generate probabilistic forecasts based on thresholds (see below) in the output file *.ens.nc. Probabilities are obtained by counting the fraction of ensemble members exceeding a given threshold
    • Input options:
      • YES: Include probabilistic forecasts
      • NO: Exclude probabilistic forecasts
  7. POSTPROCESS_PERCENTILES = (options)
    • Generate percentile forecasts in the output file *.ens.nc
    • Input options:
      • YES: Include percentile forecasts
      • NO: Exclude percentile forecasts

Sub-block IF_POSTPROCESS_PROBABILITY

Used when POSTPROCESS_PROBABILITY = YES

  1. CONCENTRATION_THRESHOLDS_(MG/M3) = (float_list)
    • List of values giving the concentration threshold
    • Note: A probability forecast map is generated for each value
  2. COLUMN_MASS_THRESHOLDS_(G/M2) = (float_list)
    • List of values giving the column mass threshold for species TEPHRA
    • Note: A probability forecast map is generated for each value
  3. COLUMN_MASS_THRESHOLDS_(DU) = (float_list)
    • List of values giving the column mass threshold for species SO2
    • Note: A probability forecast map is generated for each value
  4. GROUND_LOAD_THRESHOLDS_(KG/M2) = (float_list)
    • List of values giving the deposit ground load threshold for species TEPHRA
    • Note: A probability forecast map is generated for each value

Sub-block IF_POSTPROCESS_PERCENTILES

Used when POSTPROCESS_PERCENTILES = YES

  1. PERCENTILE_VALUES_(%) = (float_list)
    • List of values giving the percentiles in percent
    • Note: A percentile forecast map is generated for each value

Block MODEL_PHYSICS

This block defines the specific variables related to physics in the FALL3D model

  1. LIMITER = (options)
    • Flux limiter option
    • Input options:
      • MINMOD: MINMOD option
      • SUPERBEE: SUPERBEE option
      • OSPRE: OSPRE option
  2. TIME_MARCHING = (options)
    • Time integration scheme
    • Input options:
      • EULER: Euler (1st order)
      • RUNGE-KUTTA: Runge-Kutta (4th order)
  3. CFL_CRITERION = (options)
    • Courant criterion (critical time step)
    • Input options:
      • ONE_DIMENSIONAL: Minimum for each dimension
      • ALL_DIMENSIONS: Minimum for all dimensions (default)
  4. CFL_SAFETY_FACTOR = (float)
    • Safety factor for critical time step
    • Optional
    • Note: Default = 0.9
  5. TERMINAL_VELOCITY_MODEL = (options)
    • Parametrization for terminal settling velocity estimation
    • Input options:
      • ARASTOOPOUR: TODO
      • GANSER: TODO
      • WILSON: TODO
      • DELLINO: TODO
      • PFEIFFER: TODO
      • DIOGUARDI2017: TODO
      • DIOGUARDI2018: TODO
  6. HORIZONTAL_TURBULENCE_MODEL = (options)
    • Type of parametrization used to compute the horizontal diffusion
    • Input options:
      • CONSTANT (float): Constant diffusion coefficient in m^2/s
      • CMAQ: CMAQ option
      • RAMS: RAMS option
  7. VERTICAL_TURBULENCE_MODEL = (options)
    • Type of parametrization used to compute the vertical diffusion
    • Input options:
      • CONSTANT (float): Constant diffusion coefficient in m^2/s
      • SIMILARITY: Equations based on similarity theory
  8. RAMS_CS = (float)
    • Parameter CS required by the horizontal diffusion parametrization
    • Note: Only used if HORIZONTAL_TURBULENCE_MODEL = RAMS
  9. WET_DEPOSITION = (options)
    • Defines whether wet deposition model is enabled
    • Input options:
      • YES: Enable wet deposition
      • NO: Disable wet deposition
  10. DRY_DEPOSITION = (options)
    • Defines whether dry deposition model is enabled
    • Input options:
      • YES: Enable dry deposition
      • NO: Disable dry deposition
  11. GRAVITY_CURRENT = (options)
    • Define whether the gravity current model is enabled
    • Input options:
      • YES: Enable gravity current
      • NO: Disable gravity current
    • Note: Only for TEPHRA species

Sub-block IF_GRAVITY_CURRENT

Used when GRAVITY_CURRENT = YES

  1. C_FLOW_RATE = (float)
    • Empirical constant for volumetric flow rate at the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL)
  2. LAMBDA_GRAV = (float)
    • Empirical constant for the gravity current model
  3. K_ENTRAIN = (float)
    • Entrainment coefficient for the gravity current model
  4. BRUNT_VAISALA = (float)
    • Brunt-Väisälä frequency accounting for ambient stratification
  5. GC_START_(HOURS_AFTER_00) = (float)
    • Gravity current starting time
  6. GC_END_(HOURS_AFTER_00) = (float)
    • Gravity current end time

Block MODEL_OUTPUT

This block is read by task FALL3D and defines specific variables related to output strategy

  1. PARALLEL_IO = (options)
    • Use parallel Input/Output for netCDF files
    • Input options:
      • YES: Enable parallel I/O
      • NO: Disable parallel I/O
    • Note: The option PARALLEL_IO = YES requires the installation of the high-performance parallel I/O library for accessing NetCDF files
  2. LOG_FILE_LEVEL = (options)
    • Level of detail in the FALL3D log file
    • Input options:
      • NONE: TODO
      • NORMAL: TODO
      • FULL: TODO
  3. RESTART_TIME_INTERVAL_(HOURS) = (options)
    • Define the restart file output frequency
    • Input options:
      • (float): Frequency in hours
      • NONE: Restart file not written
      • END_ONLY: Restart file written only at the end of the simulation
  4. OUTPUT_JSON_FILES = (options)
    • Generate json files
    • Optional
    • Input options:
      • YES: Generate json files
      • NO: Do not generate json files
    • Note: Only for tasks SetTGSD SetDbs SetSrc FALL3D
  5. OUTPUT_INTERMEDIATE_FILES = (options)
    • Generate intermediate files
    • Input options:
      • YES: Generate intermediate files
      • NO: Do not generate intermediate files
    • Note: Only for task ALL can be set OUTPUT_INTERMEDIATE_FILES = NO
  6. OUTPUT_TIME_START_(HOURS) = (options)
    • Start time for output
    • Input options:
      • (float): Time (in hours) from which the output file is written
      • RUN_START: Start writing output file from the beginning
  7. OUTPUT_TIME_INTERVAL_(HOURS) = (float)
    • Time period of model output in hours
  8. OUTPUT_3D_CONCENTRATION = (options)
    • Specify whether the 3D concentration field should be written in the output file
    • Input options:
      • YES: Write the 3D concentration field
      • NO: Do not write the 3D concentration field
  9. OUTPUT_3D_CONCENTRATION_BINS = (options)
    • Specify whether the 3D concentration field for each bin should be written in the output file
    • Input options:
      • YES: Write the 3D concentration field for each bin
      • NO: Do not write the 3D concentration field for each bin
  10. OUTPUT_SURFACE_CONCENTRATION = (options)
    • Specify whether the surface concentration field should be written in the output file
    • Input options:
      • YES: Write the surface concentration field
      • NO: Do not write the surface concentration field
  11. OUTPUT_COLUMN_LOAD = (options)
    • Specify whether the column mass load field should be written in the output file
    • Input options:
      • YES: Write the column mass load field
      • NO: Do not write the column mass load field
  12. OUTPUT_CLOUD_TOP = (options)
    • Specify whether the cloud top height field should be written in the output file
    • Input options:
      • YES: Write the cloud top height field
      • NO: Do not write the cloud top height field
  13. OUTPUT_GROUND_LOAD = (options)
    • Specify whether the deposit mass load field should be written in the output file
    • Input options:
      • YES: Write the deposit mass load field
      • NO: Do not write the deposit mass load field
  14. OUTPUT_GROUND_LOAD_BINS = (options)
    • Specify whether the deposit mass load field for each bin should be written in the output file
    • Input options:
      • YES: Write the deposit mass load field for each bin
      • NO: Do not write the deposit mass load field for each bin
  15. OUTPUT_WET_DEPOSITION = (options)
    • Specify whether the wet deposition mass field should be written in the output file
    • Input options:
      • YES: Write the wet deposition mass field
      • NO: Do not write the wet deposition mass field
  16. TRACK_POINTS = (options)
    • Specifies whether the timeseries for the tracking points should be written
    • Input options:
      • YES: Generate tracking point file
      • NO: Do not generate tracking point file
  17. TRACK_POINTS_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the file with the list of tracked points
    • Note: Used only if TRACK_POINTS_FILE = YES
  18. OUTPUT_CONCENTRATION_AT_XCUTS = (options)
    • Output concentration at x-coordinate values specified in X-VALUES
    • Input options:
      • YES: Output concentration cuts
      • NO: Do not output concentration cuts
  19. OUTPUT_CONCENTRATION_AT_YCUTS = (options)
    • Output concentration at y-coordinate values specified in Y-VALUES
    • Input options:
      • YES: Output concentration cuts
      • NO: Do not output concentration cuts
  20. OUTPUT_CONCENTRATION_AT_ZCUTS = (options)
    • Output concentration at z-coordinate values specified in Z-VALUES
    • Input options:
      • YES: Output concentration cuts
      • NO: Do not output concentration cuts
  21. OUTPUT_CONCENTRATION_AT_FL = (options)
    • Output concentration at flight level values specified in FL-VALUES
    • Input options:
      • YES: Output concentration cuts
      • NO: Do not output concentration cuts
  22. X-VALUES = (float_list)
    • List of x-coordinate values read when OUTPUT_CONCENTRATION_AT_XCUTS = YES
  23. Y-VALUES = (float_list)
    • List of y-coordinate values read when OUTPUT_CONCENTRATION_AT_YCUTS = YES
  24. Z-VALUES = (float_list)
    • List of z-coordinate values read when OUTPUT_CONCENTRATION_AT_ZCUTS = YES
  25. FL-VALUES = (float_list)
    • List of flight level values read when OUTPUT_CONCENTRATION_AT_FL = YES

Block MODEL_VALIDATION

This block is read by task PosVal to perform automatic model validation with a set of quantitative and categorical metrics

  1. OBSERVATIONS_TYPE = (options)
    • Type of observations
    • Input options:
      • SATELLITE_DETECTION: Satellite yes/no flag contours
      • SATELLITE_RETRIEVAL: Satellite quantitative retrievals of TEPHRA/SO2 species
      • DEPOSIT_CONTOURS: Deposit isopach/isopleth contours read from a gridded netCDF file
      • DEPOSIT_POINTS: Deposit point-wise observations
  2. OBSERVATIONS_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the files with observations
  3. OBSERVATIONS_DICTIONARY_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the observations dictionary file
    • Optional
    • Note: Examples can be found in Other/Dep
  4. RESULTS_FILE = (string)
    • Path to the FALL3D output file with simulation results (*.res.nc or *.ens.nc)

Sub-block IF_OBSERVATIONS_TYPE_SATELLITE

Used when OBSERVATIONS_TYPE = SATELLITE_DETECTION or OBSERVATIONS_TYPE = SATELLITE_RETRIEVAL

  1. COLUMN_MASS_OBSERVATION_THRESHOLD_(G/M2) = (float)
    • Column mass threshold in g/m2 for TEPHRA species
    • Note: It should be consistent with COLUMN_MASS_THRESHOLDS_(G/M2) for ensemble runs
  2. COLUMN_MASS_OBSERVATION_THRESHOLD_(DU) = (float)
    • Column mass threshold in DU for SO2 species
    • Note: It should be consistent with COLUMN_MASS_THRESHOLDS_(DU) for ensemble runs

Sub-block IF_OBSERVATIONS_TYPE_DEPOSIT

Used when OBSERVATIONS_TYPE = DEPOSIT_CONTOURS or OBSERVATIONS_TYPE = DEPOSIT_POINTS

  1. GROUND_LOAD_OBSERVATION_THRESHOLD_(KG/M2) = (float)
    • Deposit load threshold in kg/m2 for TEPHRA species
    • Note: It should be consistent with GROUND_LOAD_THRESHOLDS_(KG/M2) for ensemble runs

Hands-on course

The hands-on course aims at introducing the numerical modelling FALL3D with the following session structure:

  • Session 1: Meteorological data
  • Session 2: Deterministic simulation
  • Session 3: Ensemble simulations

MareNostrum4

The exercises will be carried out in MareNostrum, the most emblematic supercomputer and the most powerful supercomputer in Spain hosted by the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. Specifically, we'll use MareNostrum4, a supercomputer based on Intel Xeon Platinum processors from the Skylake generation. It is a Lenovo system composed of SD530 Compute Racks, an Intel Omni-Path high performance network interconnect and running SuSE Linux Enterprise Server as operating system. Its current Linpack Rmax Performance is 6.2272 Petaflops.

This general-purpose block consists of 48 racks housing 3456 nodes with a grand total of 165,888 processor cores and 390 Terabytes of main memory. Each computer node is equipped with 2 sockets Intel Xeon Platinum 8160 CPU with 24 cores each @ 2.10GHz for a total of 48 cores. For further information, please refer to the User Guide.

Log in to the cluster

You can connect to MareNostrum using three public login nodes:

  • mn1.bsc.es
  • mn2.bsc.es
  • mn3.bsc.es

All connections must be done through SSH (Secure SHell), for example:

ssh {username}@mn1.bsc.es

Notes:

  • On Windows machines you can use PuTTy, the most known Windows SSH client. See this website for more details.

Directories and file systems

There are different partitions of disk space with specific size limits and usage policies. The GPFS (General Parallel File System) is a distributed networked file system and can be accessed from all the nodes. The available GPFS directories and file systems are:

  • /gpfs/home: after login, it is the default work area where users can save source codes, scripts, and other personal data. Not recommended for run jobs; please run your jobs on your group’s /gpfs/projects or /gpfs/scratch instead.

  • /gpfs/projects: it's intended for data sharing between users of the same group or project. All members of the group share the space quota.

  • /gpfs/scratch: each user has their directory under this partition, for example, to store temporary job files during execution. All members of the group share the space quota.

For example, if your your group is nct01, you can create the following alias to access to your personal directories:

alias projects='cd /gpfs/projects/nct01/$USER'
alias scratch='cd /gpfs/scratch/nct01/$USER'

Running jobs

Jobs submission to the queue system have to be done through the Slurm directives, for example:

To submit a job:

sbatch {job_script}

To show all the submitted jobs:

squeue

To cancel a job:

scancel {job_id}

There are several queues present in the machines and different users may access different queues. All queues have different limits in amount of cores for the jobs and duration. You can check anytime all queues you have access to and their limits using:

bsc_queues

Software Environment

Modules environment

The Environment Modules package provides a dynamic modification of a user's environment via modulefiles. Each modulefile contains the information needed to configure the shell for an application or a compilation. Modules can be loaded and unloaded dynamically, in a clean fashion.

Use

module list

to show the loaded modules and

module avail

to show the available modules.

Modules can be invoked in two ways: by name alone or by name and version. Invoking them by name implies loading the default module version. This is usually the most recent version that has been tested to be stable (recommended) or the only version available. For example:

module load intel

Invoking by version loads the version specified of the application. As of this writing, the previous command and the following one load the same module:

module load intel/2017.4

Compilers

The latest Intel compilers provide the best possible optimizations for the Xeon Platinum architecture. By default, when starting a new session on the system the basic modules for the Intel suite will be automatically loaded. That is the compilers (intel/2017.4), the Intel MPI software stack (impi/2017.4) and the math kernel libraries MKL (mkl/2017.4) in their latest versions. Alternatively, you can load the module using:

module load intel/2017.4
module load impi/2017.4

The corresponding optimization flags for Fortan are

FCFLAGS="-xCORE-AVX512 -mtune=skylake"

As the login nodes are of the exact same architecture as the compute node you can also use the flag -xHost which enables all possible optimizations available on the compile host. In addition, the Intel compilers will optimise more aggressively when the -O2 flag is specified:

FCFLAGS="-xCORE-AVX512 -mtune=skylake -xHost -O2"

Training course material

In order to copy the course material, go to your own project folder

cd /gpfs/projects/nct01/$USER

and copy this folder:

cp -r /gpfs/projects/nct00/nct00014/FALL3D_material .

Next, you can load the required modules and environmental variables with the command:

cd FALL3D_material
source set_env.sh

Meteorological data

In order to run FALL3D, you need to provide meteorological data as an input. Multiple datasets are supported, including global model forecasts (GFS), global analyses and re-analyses (ERA5), and mesoscale models (WRF-ARW). In this session we'll retrieve global forecasts from two datasets:

  • GFS: The Global Forecast System (global weather forecast model)
  • GEFS: The Global Ensemble Forecast System (global weather forecast model)

The GFS (Global Forecast System) is the most well-known global weather model and it’s updated every six hours (00Z, 06Z, 12Z, 18Z). It's produced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

In this session you need to copy some files to your projects folder:

cd /gpfs/projects/nct01/$USER
cp -r /gpfs/projects/nct00/nct00014/FALL3D_material/hands-on-1 .
cd hands-on-1

The filtering problem

The filtering problem is the most common estimation problem in geophysical applications, and is characterized by sequential processing in which measurements are utilized as they become available.

Filtering

  • Filtering problem: the information from observation up to the time of the current sample is used (e.g. GFS)
  • Smoothing problem: all observation samples (from future) are used. This approach is used to produce reanalysis datasets

Notes:

  • Atmospheric reanalysis is a method to reconstruct the past weather by combining historical observations with a dynamical model. It provides a physically and dynamically coherent description of the state of the atmosphere

Getting GFS and GEFS data (local machine)

Let's see how to get weather forecast data from GFS using the scripts gfs.py and gefs.py included in the FALL3D distribution under the folder Other/Meteo/Utils.

Notes:

  • Unfortunately, there's no outgoing internet connection from the cluster, which prevents the use of external repositories directly from MN4 machines. Consequently, meteorological data must be downloaded from a remote server to a local machine and then copied to the cluster.

A. Installing Python packages

The Python scripts above require the fall3dutil package, which can be installed on Linux and MacOS systems from the Python Package Index (PyPI) using pip. Python "Virtual Environments" allow Python packages to be installed in an isolated location for a particular application. In order to create a virtual environment on a typical Linux system, use the basic venv command:

python3 -m venv fall3d_env
source fall3d_env/bin/activate

This will create a new virtual environment in the fall3d_env subdirectory, and configure the current shell to use it as the default python environment. For more information, please visit the Python Packaging User Guide.

Once the virtual environment is activated, you can install the last version of the fall3dutil package using:

pip install fall3dutil

B. Configuration

Let's obtain GFS data for two domains centered around Etna (Italy) and Fuego (Guatemala) volcanoes. To this purpose, we define a configuration file config.inp with the downloading parameters:

[etna]
date    = 20240306   # Initial date
lon     = 8  36      # Longitude range
lat     = 20 42      # Latitude range
time    = 0  48      # Time forecast range
step    = 3          # Time resolution
cycle   = 0          # Cycle (00Z, 06Z, 12Z or 18Z)
res     = 0.5        # Resolution in degrees

[fuego]
date    = 20240306   # Initial date
lon     = -130 -52   # Longitude range
lat     = 0 33       # Latitude range
ens     = 1 12       # Ensemble member range
time    = 0 48       # Time forecast range
step    = 3          # Time resolution
cycle   = 0          # Cycle (00Z, 06Z, 12Z or 18Z)
res     = 0.5        # Resolution in degrees

C. Getting GFS data

To obtain GFS data to simulate a volcanic eruption at Etna use the following command:

./gfs.py --input config.inp --block etna --verbose

We get a list of GRIB2 files for every forecast time:

gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f000  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f012  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f024  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f036  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f048
gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f003  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f015  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f027  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f039
gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f006  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f018  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f030  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f042
gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f009  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f021  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f033  gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f045

D. Getting GEFS data

To obtain GEFS data to simulate a volcanic eruption at Fuego use the following command to retrieve an ensemble of weather forecasts:

./gefs.py --input config.inp --block fuego --verbose

For each ensemble member, we get a list of GRIB2 files (two files for every forecast time). For example, the files for the first ensemble member are:

gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f000  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f021  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f042  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f012  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f033
gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f003  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f024  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f045  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f015  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f036
gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f006  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f027  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f048  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f018  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f039
gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f009  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f030  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f000  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f021  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f042
gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f012  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f033  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f003  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f024  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f045
gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f015  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f036  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f006  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f027  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f048
gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f018  gep01.t00z.pgrb2a.0p50.f039  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f009  gep01.t00z.pgrb2b.0p50.f030

Copy the GRIB2 files to the cluster, for example, using scp.

Processing GFS/GEFS data (cluster)

FALL3D requires input meteorological data in netCDF format. Consequently, GFS data must be concatenated and converted from GRIB2 to obtain a single netCDF file. To this purpose, you can use the utility to read and write grib2 files wgrib2, which is available in the cluster loading the corresponding module:

module load wgrib

In addition, the command wgrib2 can be used to display the contents of a grib2 file. For example, run:

wgrib2 gfs.t00z.pgrb2full.0p50.f000

Converting GFS data

The following bash script (grib2nc.sh) invokes wgrib2 and can be used to concatenate and convert a list of GRIB2 files:

########## Edit header ##########
WGRIBEXE=wgrib2
TABLEFILE=TABLES/gfs_0p50.levels
TMIN=0
TMAX=48
STEP=3
CYCLE=0
GRIBPATH=GFS
UPDATE_FNAME (){
    fname=${GRIBPATH}/gfs.t${CYCLE}z.pgrb2full.0p50.f${HOUR}
    OUTPUTFILE=etna.gfs.nc
}
#################################

variables="HGT|TMP|RH|UGRD|VGRD|VVEL|PRES|PRATE|LAND|HPBL|SFCR"
CYCLE=$(printf %02d $CYCLE)

for i in $(seq ${TMIN} ${STEP} ${TMAX})
do
    HOUR=$(printf %03d $i)
    UPDATE_FNAME

    echo "Processing ${fname}..."
    ${WGRIBEXE} "${fname}" \
        -match ":(${variables}):" \
        -match ":(([0-9]*[.])?[0-9]+ mb|surface|2 m above ground|10 m above ground):" \
        -nc_table "${TABLEFILE}" \
        -append \
        -nc3 \
        -netcdf \
        "${OUTPUTFILE}" > wgrib.log
done

A single file etna.gfs.nc will be generated, which can be read by FALL3D.

Converting GEFS data

The following script grib2nc-ens.sh can be used to concatenate and convert GEFS data in grib2 format:

########## Edit header ########## 
WGRIBEXE=wgrib2
TABLEFILE=TABLES/gefs_0p50.levels
ENSMIN=1
ENSMAX=12
TMIN=0
TMAX=48
STEP=3
CYCLE=0
GRIBPATH=GEFS
UPDATE_FNAME (){
    fnameA=${GRIBPATH}/gep${ENS}.t${CYCLE}z.pgrb2a.0p50.f${HOUR}
    fnameB=${GRIBPATH}/gep${ENS}.t${CYCLE}z.pgrb2b.0p50.f${HOUR}
    OUTPUTFILE=fuego.gefs_p${ENS}.nc
}
################################# 

variables="HGT|TMP|RH|UGRD|VGRD|VVEL|PRES|PRATE|LAND|HPBL|SFCR"
CYCLE=$(printf %02d $CYCLE)

#
# Ensemble member loop
#
for iens in $(seq ${ENSMIN} ${ENSMAX}); do 
    ENS=$(printf %02d $iens)
    #
    # Time loop
    #
    for i in $(seq ${TMIN} ${STEP} ${TMAX}); do 
        HOUR=$(printf %03d $i)
        UPDATE_FNAME

        echo "Processing ${fnameA}..."
        ${WGRIBEXE} "${fnameA}" \
            -match ":(${variables}):" \
            -match ":(([0-9]*[.])?[0-9]+ mb|surface|2 m above ground|10 m above ground):" \
            -nc_table "${TABLEFILE}" \
            -append \
            -nc3 \
            -netcdf \
            "${OUTPUTFILE}" > wgrib.log

        echo "Processing ${fnameB}..."
        ${WGRIBEXE} "${fnameB}" \
            -match ":(${variables}):" \
            -match ":(([0-9]*[.])?[0-9]+ mb|surface|2 m above ground|10 m above ground):" \
            -nc_table "${TABLEFILE}" \
            -append \
            -nc3 \
            -netcdf \
            "${OUTPUTFILE}" >> wgrib.log
    done
done

A set of netCDF files will be generated for each ensemble member: fuego.gefs_p01.nc, fuego.gefs_p02.nc, etc...

Quick visualization using ncview

You can use the ncview tool to generate quick view of the netCDF files. First, load the required modules:

module load netcdf
module load udunits
module load gsl
module load nco
module load ncview

You can execute ncview from the cluster now:

ncview etna.gfs.nc

Notes:

  • To run your X apps remotely, log in to the remote server over SSH with the -X option, which will enable X forwarding on the client end.
ssh -X {username}@server

Deterministic simulation

Let's simulate a volcanic eruption at Etna using GFS forecasts. The following input files are required for a single FALL3D run:

  • etna.inp: FALL3D configuration file
  • etna.gfs.nc: GFS weather data in netCDF format
  • GFS.tbl: Dictionary file with GFS variable names (included in the FALL3D distribution under the folder Other/Meteo/Tables)
  • JOB.cmd: A job script with a series of directives to inform the batch system about the characteristics of the job
  • Fall3d.r8.x: FALL3D executable program

Copy the required files to your projects folder:

cd /gpfs/projects/nct01/$USER
cp -r /gpfs/projects/nct00/nct00014/FALL3D_material/hands-on-2 .

Enter to the new folder and create a symlink to the FALL3D executable file. In other words, if the FALL3D installation path is $FALL3D_PATH, run the commands:

cd hands-on-2
ln -s $FALL3D_PATH/bin/Fall3d.r8.x .

Now you can run FALL3D!

Submitting jobs

The job script JOB.cmd contains a series of directives to inform the batch system about the characteristics of the job:

#!/bin/bash
#SBATCH --job-name=FALL3D
#SBATCH --output=%x_%j.out
#SBATCH --error=%x_%j.err
#SBATCH --nodes=1
#SBATCH --ntasks=20
#SBATCH --time=00:10:00
#SBATCH --qos=training
#SBATCH --reservation=Computational24

module purge
module load intel/2017.4
module load impi/2017.4
module load netcdf

INPFILE="etna.inp"
FALLTASK="all"
NX=5
NY=2
NZ=2

srun ./Fall3d.r8.x ${FALLTASK} ${INPFILE} ${NX} ${NY} ${NZ}

You can submit the job with sbatch:

sbatch JOB.cmd

In this case, we are requesting 20 tasks for the job FALL3D.

Visualizing and analyzing model outputs

An output file etna.res.nc will be generated if the run has been completed successfully. The ncdump program generates an ASCII representation of a netCDF file and can be used to explore the content of the FALL3D output file. First, load the netcdf module in the cluster:

module load netcdf

and run the following command to show the list of variables and some metadata information:

ncdump -h etna.res.nc

Quick visualization using ncview

Next, we use the ncview tool to generate quick view of the model output. Load the required modules:

module load netcdf
module load udunits
module load gsl
module load nco
module load ncview

You can execute ncview from the cluster now:

ncview etna.res.nc

Notes:

  • To run your X apps remotely, log in to the remote server over SSH with the -X option, which will enable X forwarding on the client end.
ssh -X {username}@server

Visualization using Python

The model results can be plotted using the python package Cartopy. First, activate the following Anaconda environment:

module load anaconda
source activate volcanology

and run the python script under the folder POSTPROCESSING:

python plot_map.py
Content of file plot_map.py. Click to expand!
import numpy as np
import xarray as xr
import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib.colors import BoundaryNorm
import cartopy.crs as crs
import cartopy.feature as cfeature

###
### Parameters
###
minval          = 0.1
key             = "tephra_col_mass"
fname           = "../etna.res.nc"
levels          = np.arange(0.0,4,0.25)
vlon, vlat      = 15.0, 37.75
cmap            = plt.cm.RdYlBu_r

###
### Set mininmum level
###
if minval>0: levels[0] = minval

###
### Read file
###
ds = xr.open_dataset(fname)

###
### Generate map
###
proj = crs.PlateCarree()
fig, ax = plt.subplots( subplot_kw={'projection': proj} )

###
### Add map features
###
BORDERS = cfeature.NaturalEarthFeature(
        scale     = '10m',
        category  = 'cultural',
        name      = 'admin_0_countries',
        edgecolor = 'gray',
        facecolor = 'none'
        )
LAND = cfeature.NaturalEarthFeature(
        'physical', 'land', '10m',
        edgecolor = 'none',
        facecolor = 'lightgrey',
        alpha     = 0.8
        )

ax.add_feature(LAND,zorder=0)
ax.add_feature(BORDERS, linewidth=0.4)

###
### Add grid lines
###
gl = ax.gridlines(
	crs         = crs.PlateCarree(),
    draw_labels = True,
	linewidth   = 0.5,
	color       = 'gray',
	alpha       = 0.5,
	linestyle   = '--')
gl.top_labels    = False
gl.right_labels  = False
gl.ylabel_style  = {'rotation': 90}

###
### Add vent location
###
ax.plot(vlon,vlat,color='red',marker='^')

###
### Plot contours
###
cbar = None
for it in range(ds.time.size):
	time_fmt = ds.isel(time=it)['time'].dt.strftime("%d/%m/%Y %H:%M").item()
	ax.set_title(time_fmt, loc='right')
	fc = ax.contourf(
		ds.lon,ds.lat,ds.isel(time=it)[key],
		levels    = levels,
		norm      = BoundaryNorm(levels,cmap.N),
		cmap      = cmap,
		extend    = 'max',
		transform = crs.PlateCarree()
		)

	###
	### Generate colorbar
	###
	if not cbar:
		cbar=fig.colorbar(fc,
			orientation = 'horizontal',
			label       = r'Tephra column mass [$g~m^{-2}$]',
			)

	###
	### Output plot
	###
	fname_plt = f"map_{it:03d}.png"
	plt.savefig(fname_plt,dpi=300,bbox_inches='tight')

	###
	### Clear contours
	###
	for item in fc.collections: item.remove()

You can create an animated gif using the following command:

convert -delay 10 -loop 0 *.png animation.gif

Notes:

  • The first time you run the python script, the Cartopy package will try to download some data, including coastlines information. Since we have no internet connection in the cluster, you can copy this data tou your home folder:
cp -r /gpfs/projects/nct00/nct00014/share ~/.local

Ensemble simulations

Let's simulate a volcanic eruption at Fuego using GEFS forecasts. The following input files are required:

  • fuego.inp: FALL3D configuration file
  • fuego.gfs_pXX.nc: A list of GEFS files in netCDF format
  • GFS.tbl: Dictionary file with GFS variable names (included in the FALL3D distribution under the folder Other/Meteo/Tables)
  • JOB.cmd: A job script with a series of directives to inform the batch system about the characteristics of the job
  • Fall3d.r8.x: FALL3D executable program

Copy the required files to your projects folder:

cd /gpfs/projects/nct01/$USER
cp -r /gpfs/projects/nct00/nct00014/FALL3D_material/hands-on-3 .

Enter to the new folder and create a symlink to the FALL3D executable file. In other words, if the FALL3D installation path is $FALL3D_PATH, run the commands:

cd hands-on-3
ln -s $FALL3D_PATH/bin/Fall3d.r8.x .

Now you can run FALL3D!

Introduction and motivation

  • Atmospheric dispersion models can provide realistic distributions of airborne volcanic ash and gases or tephra deposits
  • Traditionally, operational forecast systems rely on volcanic ash transport and dispersal (VATD) models to produce deterministic forecasts

Why ensemble modelling?

  • Uncertainty in model input parameters: Deterministic models are highly sensitive to uncertain model input parameters (e.g. eruption source parameters) and meteorological fields. We can take into account these uncertainties using ensemble modelling
  • Quantification of model output uncertainty: Ensemble-based modelling allows one to characterise and quantify model output uncertainties. In addition to traditional forecasting products, the associated errors can be provided
  • Improvement of forecast skill: Real observations can be incorporated into dispersal models using ensemble-based data assimilation techniques
  • Source inversion: Different techniques for source term inversion have been proposed based on ensemble modelling

Running ensemble runs

Ensemble simulations can be performed as a single parallel task. In order to perform ensemble runs, FALL3D must be executed with the optional argument -nens to define the ensemble size. For example, the following command will generate a 12-member ensemble and perform the FALL3D task for each ensemble member:

mpirun -np 12 ./Fall3d.r8.x FALL3D name.inp -nens 12

A new folder structure will be created and the results for each ensemble member will be organized in different sub-folders.

Submitting jobs

The job script JOB.cmd contains a series of directives to inform the batch system about the characteristics of the job:

#!/bin/bash
#SBATCH --job-name=FALL3D
#SBATCH --output=%x_%j.out
#SBATCH --error=%x_%j.err
#SBATCH --nodes=1
#SBATCH --ntasks=48
#SBATCH --time=00:15:00
#SBATCH --qos=training
#SBATCH --reservation=Computational24

module purge
module load intel/2017.4
module load impi/2017.4
module load netcdf

INPFILE="fuego.inp"
FALLTASK="all"
NX=2
NY=2
NZ=1
NENS=12

if [ "${NENS}" -gt 1 ] ; then
    for i in $(seq ${NENS})
    do
        ENSDIR="$(printf "%04d" ${i})"
        IENS="$(printf "%02d" ${i})"
        echo "Creating folder ${ENSDIR}"
        mkdir -p ${ENSDIR}
        ln -sfr fuego.gfs_p${IENS}.nc ${ENSDIR}/fuego.gfs.nc
    done
fi

srun ./Fall3d.r8.x ${FALLTASK} ${INPFILE} ${NX} ${NY} ${NZ} -nens ${NENS}

You can submit the job with sbatch:

sbatch JOB.cmd

In this case, we are requesting 48 tasks to run 12 (ensemble size) instances of FALL3D.

Visualizing and analyzing model outputs

Once the model has run, the task PosEns can be executed to merge and post-process the outputs from individual ensemble members (fuego.res.nc) in order to produce a single netCDF file containing ensemble-based deterministic and/or probabilistic outputs for all variables of interest (e.g. concentration at native model levels or at flight levels, cloud column mass, ground deposit load, etc...). Run the command:

mpirun -np 12 ./Fall3d.r8.x PosEns fuego.inp -nens 12

to generate a single ensemble output file: fuego.ens.nc. The content of this file depends on the ENSEMBLE_POST block definition in the configuration file:

 --------------------
 ENSEMBLE_POSTPROCESS
 --------------------
   !
   POSTPROCESS_MEMBERS      = yes
   POSTPROCESS_MEAN         = yes
   POSTPROCESS_LOGMEAN      = no
   POSTPROCESS_MEDIAN       = no
   POSTPROCESS_STANDARD_DEV = no
   POSTPROCESS_PROBABILITY  = no
   POSTPROCESS_PERCENTILES  = no
   !
   IF_POSTPROCESS_PROBABILITY 
      CONCENTRATION_THRESHOLDS_(MG/M3) = 2
      COLUMN_MASS_THRESHOLDS_(G/M2)    = 1
      COLUMN_MASS_THRESHOLDS_(DU)      = 100
      GROUND_LOAD_THRESHOLDS_(KG/M2)   = 1 
   !
   IF_POSTPROCESS_PERCENTILES
      PERCENTILE_VALUES_(%) = 50 

where you can enable/disable different deterministic and probabilistic outputs.

Visualization using Python

The model results can be plotted using the python package Cartopy. First, activate the following Anaconda environment:

module load anaconda
source activate volcanology

and run the following python script under the folder POSTPROCESSING:

python plot_map.py

to plot the ensemble mean of SO2 column mass for every time.

Content of file plot_map.py. Click to expand!
import numpy as np
import xarray as xr
import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib.colors import BoundaryNorm
import cartopy.crs as crs
import cartopy.feature as cfeature

###
### Parameters
###
minval          = 10
key             = "SO2_col_mass_mean"
fname           = "../fuego.ens.nc"
levels          = np.arange(0.0,3000,200)
vlon, vlat      = -90.88, 14.473
cmap            = plt.cm.RdYlBu_r

###
### Set mininmum level
###
if minval>0: levels[0] = minval

###
### Read file
###
ds = xr.open_dataset(fname)

###
### Generate map
###
proj = crs.PlateCarree()
fig, ax = plt.subplots( subplot_kw={'projection': proj} )

###
### Add map features
###
BORDERS = cfeature.NaturalEarthFeature(
        scale     = '10m',
        category  = 'cultural',
        name      = 'admin_0_countries',
        edgecolor = 'gray',
        facecolor = 'none'
        )
LAND = cfeature.NaturalEarthFeature(
        'physical', 'land', '10m',
        edgecolor = 'none',
        facecolor = 'lightgrey',
        alpha     = 0.8
        )

ax.add_feature(LAND,zorder=0)
ax.add_feature(BORDERS, linewidth=0.4)

###
### Add grid lines
###
gl = ax.gridlines(
	crs         = crs.PlateCarree(),
    draw_labels = True,
	linewidth   = 0.5,
	color       = 'gray',
	alpha       = 0.5,
	linestyle   = '--')
gl.top_labels    = False
gl.right_labels  = False
gl.ylabel_style  = {'rotation': 90}

###
### Add vent location
###
ax.plot(vlon,vlat,color='red',marker='^')

###
### Plot contours
###
ax.set_title("Ensemble mean", loc='left')
cbar = None
for it in range(ds.time.size):
	time_fmt = ds.isel(time=it)['time'].dt.strftime("%d/%m/%Y %H:%M").item()
	ax.set_title(time_fmt, loc='right')
	fc = ax.contourf(
		ds.lon,ds.lat,ds.isel(time=it)[key],
		levels    = levels,
		norm      = BoundaryNorm(levels,cmap.N),
		cmap      = cmap,
		extend    = 'max',
		transform = crs.PlateCarree()
		)

	###
	### Generate colorbar
	###
	if not cbar:
		cbar=fig.colorbar(fc,
			orientation = 'horizontal',
			label       = 'SO2 column mass [DU]',
			)

	###
	### Output plot
	###
	fname_plt = f"map_{it:03d}.png"
	plt.savefig(fname_plt,dpi=300,bbox_inches='tight')

	###
	### Clear contours
	###
	for item in fc.collections: item.remove()

You can create an animated gif using the following command:

convert -delay 10 -loop 0 *.png animation.gif

References

2023

  • Mingari, L., Costa, A., Macedonio, G., and Folch, A., Reconstructing tephra fall deposits via ensemble-based data assimilation techniques, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. [preprint], https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2022-246, in review, 2022.

2022

  • Mingari, L., A. Folch, A. T. Prata, F. Pardini, G. Macedonio, and A. Costa, Data Assimilation of Volcanic Aerosol Observations Using FALL3D+PDAF, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 22 (3): 1773–92. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-1773-2022, 2022.

  • Folch, Arnau, Leonardo Mingari, and Andrew T. Prata, Ensemble-Based Forecast of Volcanic Clouds Using FALL3D-8.1, Front. Earth Sci. 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2021.741841, 2022.

  • Titos, M., B. Martı́nez Montesinos, S. Barsotti, L. Sandri, A. Folch, L. Mingari, G. Macedonio, and A. Costa, Long-Term Hazard Assessment of Explosive Eruptions at Jan Mayen (Norway) and Implications for Air Traffic in the North Atlantic, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 22 (1): 139–63. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-22-139-2022, 2022.

2021

  • Prata, A., Mingari, L., Folch, A., Costa, A., Macedonio, G., FALL3D-8.0: a computational model for atmospheric transport and deposition of particles and aerosols. Part II: model validation, Geoscientific Model Development dicussions, 14(1):409-436, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-409-2021, 2021.

2020

  • Mingari, L., Folch, A., Dominguez, L., Bonadonna, C., Volcanic ash resuspension in Patagonia: numerical simulations and observations, Atmosphere, 11, 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090977, 2020.
  • Folch, A., Mingari, L., Gutierrez, N., Hanzich, M., Costa, A., Macedonio, G., FALL3D-8.0: a computational model for atmospheric transport and deposition of particles and aerosols. Part I: model physics and numerics, geoscientific model development, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-311, 2020.
  • Osores, S., Ruiz, J., Folch, A., Collini, E., Volcanic ash forecast using ensemble-based data assimilation: the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter coupled with FALL3D-7.2 model (ETKF-FALL3D, version 1.0), Geoscientific Model Development, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-95, 2020.

2019

  • Poulidis, A., Takemi, T., and Iguchi, M.: Experimental High-Resolution Forecasting of Volcanic Ash Hazard at Sakurajima, Japan, Journal of Disaster Research, 14, 786–797, https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2019.p0786, 2019.
  • Vázquez, R., Bonasia, R., Folch, A., Arce, J.L:, Macías, L., Tephra fallout hazard assessment at Tacaná volcano (Mexico), Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v.91, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2019.02.013, 2019.

2018

  • Poret, M. and Corradini, S. and Merucci, L. and Costa, A. and Andronico, D. and Montopoli, M. and Vulpiani, G. and Freret-Lorgeril, V., Reconstructing volcanic plume evolution integrating satellite and ground-based data: application to the 23 November 2013 Etna eruption, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18, 4695-4714, https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/18/4695/2018, 2018.

2017

  • Geyer, A., Martí, A., Giralt, S., Folch, A., Potential ash impact from Antarctic volcanoes: Insights from Deception Island’s most recent eruption, Nature Scientific Reports, 7, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16630-9, 2017.
  • Mingari, L. A., Collini, E. A., Folch, A., Báez, W., Bustos, E., Osores, M. S., Reckziegel, F., Alexander, P., and Viramonte, J. G.: Numerical simulations of windblown dust over complex terrain: the Fiambalá Basin episode in June 2015, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 6759–6778, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-6759-2017, 2017.
  • Poret, M., Costa, A., Folch, A., and Martí, A.: Modelling tephra dispersal and ash aggregation: The 26th April 1979 eruption, La Soufriere St. Vincent, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 347, 207 – 220, https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.09.012, 2017.

2016

  • Costa, A., Pioli, L., and Bonadonna, C.: Assessing tephra total grain-size distribution: Insights from field data analysis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 443, 90–107, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X16300577, 2016.
  • de la Cruz, R., Folch, A., Farre, P., Cabezas, J., Navarro, N., and Cela, J.: Optimization of atmospheric transport models on HPC platforms, Computers and Geosciences, 97, 30–39, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2016.08.019, 2016.
  • Martí, A., Folch, A., Costa, A., and Engwell, S.: Reconstructing the phases of the Campanian Ignimbrite super-eruption, Nature Scientific Reports, 6, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep21220, 2016.
  • Parra, R., Bernard, B., Narvaez, D., Le Pennec, J.-L., Hasselle, N., and Folch, A.: Eruption Source Parameters for forecasting ash dispersion and deposition from vulcanian eruptions at Tungurahua volcano: Insights from field data from the July 2013 eruption, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 309, 1 – 13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.11.001, 2016.
  • Sandri, L., Costa, A., Selva, J., Tonini, R., Macedonio, G., Folch, A., and Sulpizio, R.: Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes, Scientific Reports, 6, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24271, 2016.
  • Reckziegel, F., Bustos, E., Mingari, L., Baez, W., Villarosa, G., Folch, A., Collini, E., Viramonte, J., Romero. J.E., Osores, S., Forecasting volcanic ash dispersal and coeval resuspension during the April-May 2015 Calbuco eruption, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.04.033, 2016.

2015

  • Watt, S., J. S. Gilbert, A. Folch, J.C. Phillips, X-M. Cai, Enhanced tephra fallout driven by topographically induced atmospheric turbulence, Bulletin of Volcanology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-015-0927-x, 2015.

2014

  • Biass, S., Scaini, C., Bonadonna, C., Folch, A., Smith, K., and Höskuldsson, A.: A multi-scale risk assessment for tephra fallout and airborne concentration from multiple Icelandic volcanoes. Part 1: Hazard assessment, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 14, 2265–2287, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-14-2265-2014, 2014.
  • Costa, A., Smith, V., Macedonio, G., and Matthews, N. E.: The magnitude and impact of the Youngest Toba Tuff super-eruption, Frontiers in Earth Science, 2, 16, https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2014.00016, 2014.
  • Folch, A., Mingari, L., Osores, M. S., and Collini, E.: Modeling volcanic ash resuspension - application to the 14-18 October 2011 outbreak episode in Central Patagonia, Argentina, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 119–133, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-14-119-2014, 2014.
  • Scaini, C., S. Biass, A. Galderisi, C. Bonadonna, K. Smith, A. Folch, A. Hoskuldsson, A multi-scale risk assessment to tephra fallout and dispersal at 4 Icelandic volcanoes – Part II: vulnerability and impact assessment, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2289-2312, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-14-2289-2014, 2014

2013

  • Bonasia, R., Scaini, C., Capra, L., Nathenson, M., Siebe, C., Arana-Salinas, L., and Folch, A.: Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety, Bulletin of Volcanology, 76, 789, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-013-0789-z, 2013.
  • Collini, E., Osores, S., Folch, A., Viramonte, J., Villarosa, G., and Salmuni, G.: Volcanic ash forecast during the June 2011 Cordón Caulle eruption, Natural Hazards, 66, 389–412, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0492-y, 2013.
  • Costa, A., Folch, A., and Macedonio, G.: Density-driven transport in the umbrella region of volcanic clouds: Implications for tephra dispersion models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50942, corrected on 17 June 2019, 2013.
  • Osores, M., Folch, A., Collini, E., Villarosa, G., Durant, A., Pujol, G., and Viramonte, J.: Validation of the FALL3D model for the 2008 Chaiten eruption using field, laboratory and satellite data„ Andean Geology, 40, 262–276, https://doi.org/10.5027/andgeoV40n2-a05, 2013.

2012

  • Bear-Crozier, A., Kartadinata, N., Heriwaseso, A., and Møller Nielsen, O.: Development of python-FALL3D: a modified procedure for modelling volcanic ash dispersal in the Asia-Pacific region, Natural Hazards, 64, 821–838, 2012.
  • Bonasia, R., A. Costa, A. Folch, G. Macedonio, Numerical simulation of tephra transport and deposition of the 1982 El Chichón eruption and implications for hazard assessment, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 231, 39-49, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.04.006, 2012.
  • Costa, A., Folch, A., Macedonio, G., Giaccio, B., Isaia, R., and Smith, V. C.: Quantifying volcanic ash dispersal and impact of the Campanian Ignimbrite super-eruption, Geophysical Research Letters, 39, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051605, 2012.
  • Folch, A., Costa, A., and Basart, S.: Validation of the FALL3D ash dispersion model using observations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash clouds, Atmospheric Environment, 48, 165–183, https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.06.072, 2012.
  • Scaini, C., Folch, A., and Navarro, M.: Tephra hazard assessment at Concepción Volcano, Nicaragua, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 219, 41–51, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.01.007, 2012.
  • Sulpizio, R., Folch, A., Costa, A., Scaini, C., and Dellino, P.: Hazard assessment of far-range volcanic ash dispersal from a violent Strombolian eruption at Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Naples, Italy: implications on civil aviation, Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 2205–2218, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-012-0656-3, 2012.

2011

  • Corradini, S., Merucci, L., and Folch, A.: Volcanic Ash Cloud Properties: Comparison Between MODIS Satellite Retrievals and FALL3D Transport Model, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 8, 248–252, https://doi.org/10.1109/LGRS.2010.2064156, 2011.

2010

  • Costa, A., Folch, A., and Macedonio, G.: A model for wet aggregation of ash particles in volcanic plumes and clouds: I.Theoretical formulation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JB007175, 2010.
  • Folch, A., Costa, A., Durant, A., and Macedonio, G.: A model for wet aggregation of ash particles in volcanic plumes and clouds: II. Model application, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JB007176, 2010.
  • Folch A., R. Sulpizio, Evaluating the long-range volcanic ash hazard using supercomputing facilities. Application to Somma-Vesuvius (Italy), and consequences on civil aviation over the Central Mediterranean Area, Bulletin of Volcanology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-010-0386-3, 2010.
  • Scollo, S., Folch, A., Coltelli, M., and Realmuto, V. J.: Threedimensional volcanic aerosol dispersal: A comparison between Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) data and numerical simulations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013162, 2010.

2009

  • Folch, A., Costa, A., and Macedonio, G.: FALL3D: A Computational Model for Transport and Deposition of Volcanic Ash, Comput. Geosci., 35, 1334–1342, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2008.08.008, 2009.

2008

  • Folch, A., Cavazzoni, C., Costa, A., and Macedonio, G.: An automatic procedure to forecast tephra fallout, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 177, 767–777, 2008.
  • Folch, A., Jorba, O., Viramonte, J., Volcanic ash forecast – application to the May 2008 Chaiten eruption, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 927–940, 2008.
  • Macedonio, G., A. Costa, A. Folch, Ash fallout scenarios at Vesuvius: numerical simulations and implications for hazard assessment, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 178, 366-377, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.08.014, 2008.
  • Scollo, S., Folch, A., Costa, A., A parametric and comparative study of different tephra fallout models, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 176(2), 199-211, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.04.002, 2008.

2006

  • Costa, A., Macedonio, G., and Folch, A.: A three-dimensional Eulerian model for transport and deposition of volcanic ashes, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 241, 634 – 647, https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.019, 2006.

2000

  • Kurganov, A. and Tadmor, E.: New High–Resolution Cen- tral Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws and Convection–Diffusion Equations, J Comp Phys, 160, 241– 110 282, https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcph.2000.6459, 2000.

Acknowledgments

This work has been partly funded by the H2020 Center of Excellence for Exascale in Solid Earth (ChEESE) under the Grant Agreement 823844.